GDNF Promotes Hair Formation and Cutaneous Wound Healing by Targeting Bulge Stem Cells

Using a Gfra1 (glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha 1) knock-in reporter mouse line, GDNF signaling was found to occur within hair bulge stem cells during the initiation of the hair cycle and early stages of hair formation after depilation.
[NPJ Regenerative Medicine]
Lisse, T. S., Sharma, M., Vishlaghi, N., Pullagura, S. R., & Braun, R. E. (2020). GDNF promotes hair formation and cutaneous wound healing by targeting bulge stem cells. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 5(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-020-0098-z Cite
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Induction of IRAK-M in Melanoma Induces Caspase-3 Dependent Apoptosis by Reducing TRAF6 and Calpastatin Levels

Scientists showed that IRAK-M, a negative regulator of MyD88 signaling, was deficient or low in melanoma and expression levels correlated with patient survival. Inducing IRAK-M expression using genetic approaches or epigenetic modifiers initiated apoptosis by prompting its interaction with TRAF6.
[Communications Biology]
Geng, D., Ciavattone, N., Lasola, J. J., Shrestha, R., Sanchez, A., Guo, J., Vlk, A., Younis, R., Wang, L., Brown, A. J., Zhang, Y., Velasco-Gonzalez, C., Tan, A.-C., & Davila, E. (2020). Induction of IRAK-M in melanoma induces caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by reducing TRAF6 and calpastatin levels. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1033-y Cite
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Pre-Clinical Modeling of Cutaneous Melanoma

The authors discuss the current available repertoire of melanoma models including two- and three-dimensional tissue cultures, organoids, genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenograft.
[Nature Communications]
Pre-clinical modeling of cutaneous melanoma | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-15546-9 Cite
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Mitochondria in Skin Health, Aging, and Disease

Scientists discuss the essential role of mitochondria in regulating normal and abnormal skin physiology and the possibility of targeting this organelle in various skin disorders.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Sreedhar, A., Aguilera-Aguirre, L., & Singh, K. K. (2020). Mitochondria in skin health, aging, and disease. Cell Death & Disease, 11(6), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2649-z Cite
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Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Ablation in Human Keratinocytes to Recapitulate Genodermatoses: Modeling of Netherton Syndrome

Researchers have established a highly efficient method for precise deletion of critical gene sequences in primary human keratinocytes, based on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Gálvez, V., Chacón-Solano, E., Bonafont, J., Mencía, Á., Di, W.-L., Murillas, R., Llames, S., Vicente, A., Rio, M. D., Carretero, M., & Larcher, F. (2020). Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene ablation in human keratinocytes to recapitulate genodermatoses: Modeling of Netherton Syndrome. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.05.031 Cite
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New Wound-Healing Research Project Wins NASA Tick of Approval

A group of Australian scientists have caught the attention of NASA with a novel technology development that could potentially heal wounds in days rather than weeks without using stitches.
[Southern Cross University]
New wound-healing research project wins NASA tick of approval - Southern Cross University. (n.d.). Retrieved June 12, 2020, from https://www.scu.edu.au/engage/news/2020/new-wound-healing-research-project-wins-nasa-tick-of-approval.php Cite
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Hair-Bearing Human Skin Generated Entirely from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists report an organoid culture system that generated complex skin from human PSCs. They used stepwise modulation of the transforming growth factor β and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways to co-induce cranial epithelial cells and neural crest cells within a spherical cell aggregate.
[Nature]
Lee, J., Rabbani, C. C., Gao, H., Steinhart, M. R., Woodruff, B. M., Pflum, Z. E., Kim, A., Heller, S., Liu, Y., Shipchandler, T. Z., & Koehler, K. R. (2020). Hair-bearing human skin generated entirely from pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2352-3 Cite
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Sanofi: FDA Approves Dupixent® (Dupilumab) as First Biologic Medicine for Children Aged 6 to 11 Years with Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis

The US FDA have approved Dupixent® for children aged 6 to 11 years with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis whose disease is not adequately controlled with topical prescription therapies or when those therapies are not advisable.
Sanofi: Press Releases, Tuesday, May 26, 2020. (n.d.). Https://Www.Sanofi.Com/En/Media-Room/Press-Releases/2020/2020-05-26-17-40-00. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.sanofi.com/media-room/press-releases/2020/2020-05-26 17-40-00 2038798 Cite
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Achilles Therapeutics Doses First Patient in Phase I/II Study in Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

Achilles Therapeutics have announced that it has dosed the first patient in a Phase I/II study of a clonal neoantigen T cell therapy in patients with recurrent or metastatic malignant melanoma.
Achilles Therapeutics doses first patient in Phase I/II Study in recurrent or metastatic malignant melanoma with first TIL therapy to specifically target clonal neoantigens. (2020, May 29). Achilles Therapeutics. https://achillestx.com/achilles-therapeutics-doses-first-patient-in-phase-i-ii-study-in-recurrent-or-metastatic-malignant-melanoma-with-first-til-therapy-to-specifically-target-clonal-neoantigens/ Cite
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Common Germline Variants of the Human Apoe Gene Modulate Melanoma Progression and Survival

Scientists reported that, in a reversal of their effect on Alzheimer’s disease, the APOE4 and APOE2 variants conferred favorable and poor outcomes in melanoma, respectively.
[Nature Medicine]
Ostendorf, B. N., Bilanovic, J., Adaku, N., Tafreshian, K. N., Tavora, B., Vaughan, R. D., & Tavazoie, S. F. (2020). Common germline variants of the human APOE gene modulate melanoma progression and survival. Nature Medicine, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0879-3 Cite
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Overcoming Genetically-Based Resistance Mechanisms to PD-1 Blockade

Human melanoma cell lines with JAK1/2 knockout became insensitive to interferon-induced antitumor effects, while B2M knockout were no longer recognized by antigen-specific T cells and hence, resistant to cytotoxicity.
[Cancer Discovery]
Torrejon, D. Y., Abril-Rodriguez, G., Champhekar, A. S., Tsoi, J., Campbell, K. M., Kalbasi, A., Parisi, G., Zaretsky, J. M., Garcia-Diaz, A., Puig-Saus, C., Cheung-Lau, G., Wohlwender, T., Krystofinski, P., Vega-Crespo, A., Lee, C. M., Mascaro, P., Grasso, C. S., Berent-Maoz, B., Comin-Anduix, B., … Ribas, A. (2020). Overcoming genetically-based resistance mechanisms to PD-1 blockade. Cancer Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1409 Cite
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