R-Loops Coordinate with SOX2 in Regulating Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Investigators profiled R-loops during somatic cell reprogramming and found that dynamic changes in R-loops are essential for reprogramming and occurred before changes in gene expression.
[Genetics]
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An In Vitro Model of Early Anteroposterior Organization during Human Development

The authors showed that human ESCs can be used to generate gastruloids—three-dimensional multicellular aggregates that differentiate to form derivatives of the three germ layers organized spatiotemporally, without additional extra-embryonic tissues.
[Nature]
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line Banking for the Production of Rare Blood Type Erythrocytes

Mononuclear cells separated from the peripheral blood of O D-positive and rare blood type donors were cultured to produce and expand erythroid progenitors and reprogrammed into iPSCs. A 31-day serum-free, xeno-free erythroid differentiation protocol was used to generate reticulocytes.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
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AAV-Mediated FOXG1 Gene Editing in Human Rett Primary Cells

Investigators demonstrated that an adeno-associated viruses-coupled CRISPR/Cas9 system was able to target and correct Forkhead Box G1 (FOXG1) variants in patient-derived fibroblasts, iPSCs and iPSC-derived neurons.
[European Journal of Human Genetics]
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Impact of α-Synuclein Pathology on Transplanted hESC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons in a Humanized α-Synuclein Rat Model of PD

Researchers established a humanized transplantation model of Parkinson’s disease that better recapitulates the main disease features, obtained by coinjection of preformed human α-synuclein (α-syn) fibrils and adeno-associated virus expressing human wild-type α-syn unilaterally into the rat substantia nigra.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Human MuStem Cell Grafting into Infarcted Rat Heart Attenuates Adverse Tissue Remodeling and Preserves Cardiac Function hMuStem Cells Preserve Function of Infarcted Heart

In Dog and Human, the authors described a type of muscle-derived stem cells termed MuStem cells that efficiently promoted repair of injured skeletal muscle. Enhanced survival rate, long-term engraftment, and participation in muscle fiber formation were reported, leading to persistent tissue remodeling and clinical benefits.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
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MicroRNA-181c-5p Promotes the Formation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Targeting smad7 and TGIF2

Investigators differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing cells in a stepwise process that recapitulated pancreas organogenesis and observed that miR-181c-5p continuously accumulated throughout the entire differentiation process.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Huge Open-Access Journal Deal Inked by University of California and Springer Nature

The University of California (UC) system announced it has signed the biggest open-access deal in North America with one of the largest commercial scientific publishers. The agreement with Springer Nature includes a commitment by the publisher to explore making all articles that UC corresponding authors publish in the Nature family of journals immediately free to read on publication starting in 2022.
[ScienceInsider]
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Immunity-and-Matrix-Regulatory Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Safely and Effectively Treat Mouse Lung Injury and Fibrosis

Intravenous delivery of immunity- and matrix-regulatory cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, inhibited both pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mouse models of lung injury, and significantly improved the survival rate of the recipient mice in a dose-dependent manner, likely through paracrine regulatory mechanisms.
[Cell Research]
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Selective Induction of Human Autonomic Neurons Enables Precise Control of Cardiomyocyte Beating

Neurons were individually induced, facilitating the regulation of the beating rates of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes in an antagonistic manner.
[Scientific Reports]
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Hair-Bearing Human Skin Generated Entirely from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists report an organoid culture system that generated complex skin from human PSCs. They used stepwise modulation of the transforming growth factor β and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways to co-induce cranial epithelial cells and neural crest cells within a spherical cell aggregate.
[Nature]
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