Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology: Trends in Molecular Biology, from Genetics to Epigenetics

The authors reviewed the molecular basis of reprogramming, including the reprogramming factors, applied vectors and epigenetic modifications to provide a comprehensive guide for reprogramming studies.
[Epigenomics]
Maali, A., Maroufi, F., Sadeghi, F., Atashi, A., Kouchaki, R., Moghadami, M., & Azad, M. (2021). Induced pluripotent stem cell technology: trends in molecular biology, from genetics to epigenetics. Epigenomics. https://doi.org/10.2217/epi-2020-0409 Cite
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Aspect Biosystems and JSR Corporation Enter Collaboration to Develop Bioprinted Vascularized Tissues for Regenerative Medicine

Aspect Biosystems announced a new joint development program with JSR Corporation. This collaboration builds on the existing partnership between the two companies and will see the combining of Aspect’s proprietary microfluidic 3D bioprinting platform with JSR’s advanced materials technology to develop implantable vascularized tissues for kidney regeneration and other applications in regenerative medicine.
[Aspect Biosystems, Inc.]
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Athersys Reports That Healios Has Completed Enrollment in the ONE-BRIDGE Study of MultiStem® for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Japan

Athersys, Inc. announced that its partner HEALIOS K.K. has completed enrollment in the ONE-BRIDGE study in Japan evaluating MultiStem® in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by pneumonia.
[Athersys, Inc]
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Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: A Regenerative Medicine Perspective

Investigators discuss current challenges surrounding the generation, delivery, and engraftment of stem cell-derived islet-like cells, along with strategies to induce durable tolerance to grafted cells, with an eye toward a functional cellular-based therapy enabling insulin independence for patients with diabetes.
[Cell Metabolism]
Migliorini, A., Nostro, M. C., & Sneddon, J. B. (2021). Human pluripotent stem cell-derived insulin-producing cells: A regenerative medicine perspective. Cell Metabolism, 33(4), 721–731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.021 Cite
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3D iPSC Modeling of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium-Choriocapillaris Complex Identifies Factors Involved in the Pathology of Macular Degeneration

By incorporating iPSC-derived cells into a hydrogel-based extracellular matrix, researchers developed a 3D retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)- choriocapillaris (CC) model that recapitulated key features of both healthy and age-related macular degeneration/macular dystrophie eyes and provides modular control over RPE and CC layers.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Manian, K. V., Galloway, C. A., Dalvi, S., Emanuel, A. A., Mereness, J. A., Black, W., Winschel, L., Soto, C., Li, Y., Song, Y., DeMaria, W., Kumar, A., Slukvin, I., Schwartz, M. P., Murphy, W. L., Anand-Apte, B., Chung, M., Benoit, D. S. W., & Singh, R. (2021). 3D iPSC modeling of the retinal pigment epithelium-choriocapillaris complex identifies factors involved in the pathology of macular degeneration. Cell Stem Cell. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.02.006 Cite
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Core–Shell Hydrogel Microcapsules Enable Formation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Spheroids and Their Cultivation in a Stirred Bioreactor

Investigators demonstrated successful encapsulation, spheroid formation and high viability for three different hPSC lines. Using one of the hPSC lines they demonstrated maintenance of pluripotency and successful differentiation of stem cell spheroids into β-cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Fattahi, P., Rahimian, A., Slama, M. Q., Gwon, K., Gonzalez-Suarez, A. M., Wolf, J., Baskaran, H., Duffy, C. D., Stybayeva, G., Peterson, Q. P., & Revzin, A. (2021). Core–shell hydrogel microcapsules enable formation of human pluripotent stem cell spheroids and their cultivation in a stirred bioreactor. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7177. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85786-2 Cite
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Transplantation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Cells for Corneal Endothelial Regeneration

Transplantation of the hiPSC-derived neural crest cells rapidly restored rabbit corneal thickness and clarity. However, the long-term recovery efficacy was impaired by the improper maturation, senescence, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition of the transplanted cells.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Gong, Y., Duan, H., Wang, X., Zhao, C., Li, W., Dong, C., Li, Z., & Zhou, Q. (2021). Transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest cells for corneal endothelial regeneration. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 214. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02267-z Cite
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MYBL2 and ATM Suppress Replication Stress in Pluripotent Stem Cells

The authors proposed that in addition to ataxia‐telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR), a MYBL2‐MRN‐ATM replication stress response pathway functioned in ESCs to control DNA replication initiation and prevent genome instability.
[EMBO Reports]
Blakemore, D., Vilaplana-Lopera, N., Almaghrabi, R., Gonzalez, E., Moya, M., Ward, C., Murphy, G., Gambus, A., Petermann, E., Stewart, G. S., & García, P. (2021). MYBL2 and ATM suppress replication stress in pluripotent stem cells. EMBO Reports, n/a(n/a), e51120. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202051120 Cite
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The Deubiquitinase Usp9x Regulates PRC2-Mediated Chromatin Reprogramming during Mouse Development

Researchers report a post-translational mechanism that destabilized Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to constrict H3K27me3 during lineage commitment.
[Nature Communications]
Macrae, T. A., & Ramalho-Santos, M. (2021). The deubiquitinase Usp9x regulates PRC2-mediated chromatin reprogramming during mouse development. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1865. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21910-0 Cite
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NRF2 Is Required for Structural and Metabolic Maturation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Ardiomyocytes

The authors found that nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) played an important role in the maturation of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zhang, X., Ye, L., Xu, H., Zhou, Q., Tan, B., Yi, Q., Yan, L., Xie, M., Zhang, Y., Tian, J., & Zhu, J. (2021). NRF2 is required for structural and metabolic maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived ardiomyocytes. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 208. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02264-2 Cite
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TRPV1 Channels Regulate the Automaticity of Embryonic Stem Cell‐Derived Cardiomyocytes through Stimulating the NA+/Ca2+ Exchanger Current

Investigators suggest that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activity was important for regulating the spontaneous activity of embryonic stem cell‐derived cardiomyocytes (ESC‐CMs) and revealed a novel interplay between TRPV1 and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in regulating the physiological functions of ESC‐CMs.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
Zhao, R., Liu, X., Qi, Z., Yao, X., & Tsang, S. Y. (n.d.). TRPV1 channels regulate the automaticity of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes through stimulating the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30369 Cite
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