The authors showed that depletion of transforming growth factor-β receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, halts cancer progression as a result of tissue healing and remodeling of the blood vasculature, causing cancer cell hypoxia and death in distant avascular regions.
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Liu, M., Kuo, F., Capistrano, K. J., Kang, D., Nixon, B. G., Shi, W., Chou, C., Do, M. H., Stamatiades, E. G., Gao, S., Li, S., Chen, Y., Hsieh, J. J., Hakimi, A. A., Taniuchi, I., Chan, T. A., & Li, M. O. (2020). TGF-β suppresses type 2 immunity to cancer. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2836-1 Cite
The TGF-β1 signalling pathway may have a key role in the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). The authors summarise the pathogenesis, risk factors, imaging features, clinical staging, therapeutic methods, prevention and treatment strategies associated with MRONJ.
[International Journal of Oral Science]
NOXXON Pharma N.V. announced the collaboration with three additional clinical sites to increase recruitment capacity for the Phase I/II brain cancer study of NOX-A12 plus radiotherapy, as a measure to ensure the timely completion of the study under the current challenging conditions posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.
[NOXXON Pharma N.V.]
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Researchers determined that the Siah2 E3 ubiquitin ligase functions in a coincidence detection circuit linking responses to the Shh mitogen and the ECM to control cerebellar granule neurons germinal zone occupancy.
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The authors focus on brain microenvironment features impacted by tumor biology. They also discuss limits of current preclinical models and how complementary models, such as humanized animals and organoids, will allow deeper mechanistic insights on cancer biology, allowing for more efficient testing of therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapy, for brain cancers.
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Scientists applied genetic fate mapping and temporal clonal analysis to identify murine cardiomyocytes committed to the Purkinje fiber (PF) lineage as early as E7.5. They found that a polyclonal PF network emerged by progressive recruitment of conductive precursors to this scaffold from a pool of bipotent progenitors.
The authors present the role of exosomes in the tumor microenvironment and the underlying mechanism of how exosomes exacerbate tumor development through metabolic reprogramming.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
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Yang, E., Wang, X., Gong, Z., Yu, M., Wu, H., & Zhang, D. (2020). Exosome-mediated metabolic reprogramming: the emerging role in tumor microenvironment remodeling and its influence on cancer progression. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00359-5 Cite
Investigators showed that GALA induced the glycosylation of the ER-resident calnexin (Cnx) in breast and liver cancer. Glycosylated Cnx and its partner ERp57 are trafficked to invadosomes, which are sites of ECM degradation.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Ros, M., Nguyen, A. T., Chia, J., Le Tran, S., Le Guezennec, X., McDowall, R., Vakhrushev, S., Clausen, H., Humphries, M. J., Saltel, F., & Bard, F. A. (2020). ER-resident oxidoreductases are glycosylated and trafficked to the cell surface to promote matrix degradation by tumour cells. Nature Cell Biology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-00590-w Cite
By varying the physical properties of collagen, investigators found that MDA-MB-231 tumor cells invaded and escaped faster in lower-density ECM. These effects were mediated by the ECM pore size, rather than by the elastic modulus or interstitial flow speed.
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A 2D nanosheet‐based catalytic nanomotor with chemotaxis behavior was developed for enhanced drug delivery toward the tumor microenvironment. The nanomotors were constructed via a facile one‐pot method and exhibited ultrathin monolayer nanosheet morphology.
Researchers found a strong positive correlation between β-catenin and TGF-β2 proteins in women with adenomyosis. Treatment with pirfenidone, a TGF-β inhibitor, increased E-cadherin expression and reduced cell invasiveness in Ishikawa cells with nuclear β-catenin.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
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Yoo, J.-Y., Ku, B. J., Kim, T. H., Il Ahn, J., Ahn, J. Y., Yang, W. S., Lim, J. M., Taketo, M. M., Shin, J.-H., & Jeong, J.-W. (2020). β-catenin activates TGF-β-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in adenomyosis. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-00514-6 Cite