The authors focus on TGFB1/INHBA homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 signaling network in pancreatic cancer as a pivotal central node which regulates multiple key mechanisms involved in the development of chemoresistance, including enhancement of the stem cell-like properties and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells, mediating cooperative interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and the surrounding stroma as well as regulating the deposition of ECM proteins within the tumor microenvironment.
The local soft spots created by liver cancer stem cells could enhance stemness and drug resistance and provide a route of escape to facilitate hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.
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Ng, K.-Y., Shea, Q. T., Wong, T.-L., Luk, S. T., Tong, M., Lo, C.-M., Man, K., Yun, J.-P., Guan, X.-Y., Lee, T. K., Zheng, Y.-P., & Ma, S. (n.d.). Chemotherapy-Enriched THBS2-Deficient Cancer Stem Cells Drive Hepatocarcinogenesis through Matrix Softness Induced Histone H3 Modifications. Advanced Science, n/a(n/a), 2002483. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002483 Cite
The authors describe optimized 3D culture conditions of primary human hepatocytes to trigger two waves of proliferation and identified matrix stiffness and cell–cell interactions as the main actors necessary for this proliferation.
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Transcriptional profiling of IL-33-deficient kidneys 24 hours after ligation revealed enhanced expression of fibrogenic genes and enrichment of gene sets involved in ECM formation and remodeling.
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Gatti, F., Mia, S., Hammarström, C., Frerker, N., Fosby, B., Wang, J., Pietka, W., Sundnes, O., Hol, J., Kasprzycka, M., & Haraldsen, G. (2021). Nuclear IL-33 restrains the early conversion of fibroblasts to an extracellular matrix-secreting phenotype. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 108. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80509-5 Cite
Results of flow property, shape fidelity, scaffold stability and biocompatibility of H4-RGD suggest that the proposed hydrogel could be considered for 3D cell bioprinting and also for in vitro tumor microenvironment development for high throughput screening of various anti-cancer drugs.
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Gebeyehu, A., Surapaneni, S. K., Huang, J., Mondal, A., Wang, V. Z., Haruna, N. F., Bagde, A., Arthur, P., Kutlehria, S., Patel, N., Rishi, A. K., & Singh, M. (2021). Polysaccharide hydrogel based 3D printed tumor models for chemotherapeutic drug screening. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 372. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79325-8 Cite
Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with bioactive factors can display impressive performance as an ideal wound dressing, since they can mimic the composition and physicochemical properties of the ECM. The authors fabricated a new composite biomaterial for wound healing, using a rat model for experimental evaluation.
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Scientists examined the T cell-intrinsic role of Activin-A, a TGF-β superfamily member closely related to TGF-β1, in pathogenic Th17 cell differentiation. Activin-A expression was increased in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
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Wu, B., Zhang, S., Guo, Z., Bi, Y., Zhou, M., Li, P., Seyedsadr, M., Xu, X., Li, J., Markovic-Plese, S., & Wan, Y. Y. (2021). The TGF-β superfamily cytokine Activin-A is induced during autoimmune neuroinflammation and drives pathogenic Th17 cell differentiation. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.12.010 Cite
The authors describe that the stemness and differentiation potential of cancer stem cells were enhanced under hypoxic microenvironments, through hypoxia-induced epithelial-endothelial transition and extracellular matrix remodeling to form the specific mechanism of vasculogenic mimicry.
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Wei, X., Chen, Y., Jiang, X., Peng, M., Liu, Y., Mo, Y., Ren, D., Hua, Y., Yu, B., Zhou, Y., Liao, Q., Wang, H., Xiang, B., Zhou, M., Li, X., Li, G., Li, Y., Xiong, W., & Zeng, Z. (2021). Mechanisms of vasculogenic mimicry in hypoxic tumor microenvironments. Molecular Cancer, 20(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-020-01288-1 Cite
The authors focus on TGFβ, a well-characterized family member that has a dichotomous role in cancer progression, acting in early stages as a tumor suppressor and in late stages as a tumor promoter.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Scientists present an in vitro model of the peripheral nervous system by establishing a coculture model of motor neurons and Schwann cells in a 3D environment in a microengineered extracellular matrix hydrogel scaffold.
[NPG Asia Materials]
The authors review recent advances in identifying the stroma-dependent mechanisms that regulate cancer-associated inflammation and antitumor immunity, in particular, the interactions between fibroblasts and immune cells.