Reversible Suppression of T Cell Function in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Investigators found a significant association between T cell infiltration in the bone marrow microenvironment of newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and increased overall survival. Functional studies aimed at establishing the degree of T cell suppression in patients with AML revealed impaired T cell function in many patients.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Integrin α5β1, as a Receptor of Fibronectin, Binds the FbaA Protein of Group A Streptococcus to Initiate Autophagy during Infection

The authors stimulated cells and infected mice with M and FbaA mutants of M1 Group A Streptococcus strain SF370 or with purified M and FbaA proteins, and found that only FbaA protein was involved in autophagy induction.
[mBio]
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Aggrecanase-Selective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) Protects Articular Cartilage in a Surgical Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis

The authors tested whether the selectivity of [-1A]TIMP3 was beneficial compared with that of the wild-type TIMP3 in preventing or delaying the onset of the degenerative effects in a mouse model of osteoarthritis. They generated transgenic mice that overexpressed TIMP3 or [-1A]TIMP3 driven by a chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter
[Scientific Reports]
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In silico Analysis Reveals EP300 As a panCancer Inhibitor of Anti-Tumor Immune Response via Metabolic Modulation

Based on the TCGA database, scientists defined specific, altered genes associated with different tumor immune microenvironment types, which might represent new predictive markers or targets for immuno-therapeutic approaches.
[Scientific Reports]
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Organoid Polymer Functionality and Mode of Klebsiella pneumoniae Membrane Antigen Presentation Regulates Ex Vivo Germinal Center Epigenetics in Young and Aged B Cells2

Polyethylene glycol-based immune organoids were developed to elucidate the effects of polymer end-point chemistry, integrin ligands, and mode of K. pneumoniae antigen presentation on germinal center-like B cell phenotype and epigenetics, to better define the lymph node microenvironment factors regulating ex vivo germinal center dynamics.
[Advanced Functional Materials]
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Reduction of Liver Metastasis Stiffness Improves Response to Bevacizumab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Using patient samples and atomic force microscopy, scientists found that tissue stiffness was higher in liver metastases than in primary colorectal tumors. Highly activated metastasis-associated fibroblasts increased tissue stiffness, which enhanced angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy resistance.
[Cancer Cell]
Shen, Y., Wang, X., Lu, J., Salfenmoser, M., Wirsik, N. M., Schleussner, N., … Schmidt, T. (2020). Reduction of Liver Metastasis Stiffness Improves Response to Bevacizumab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Cell, 37(6), 800-817.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.05.005 Cite
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Ablation of the miRNA Cluster 24 Has Profound Effects on Extracellular Matrix Protein Abundance in Cartilage

Investigators studied the expression of the cluster in cartilage by LacZ reporter gene assays and determined its role for ECM homeostasis by proteome and immunoblot analysis. The cluster was expressed in prehypertrophic/hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate and they showed that the cluster was also highly expressed in articular cartilage.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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NRP2 as an Emerging Angiogenic Player; Promoting Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Migration by Regulating Recycling of α5 Integrin

The authors demonstrated that neuropilin (NRP)2 promoted Rac-1 mediated endothelial cell adhesion and migration over fibronectin matrices in a mechanistically distinct fashion to NRP1, showing no dependence on β3 integrin expression, or VEGF stimulation
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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The Biomarker HE4 (WFDC2) Promotes a Pro-Angiogenic and Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment via Regulation of STAT3 Target Genes

HE4 was found to activate STAT3 signaling and promote upregulation of the pro-angiogenic STAT3 target genes IL8 and HIF1A in immune cells, ovarian cancer cells, and endothelial cells. Moreover, HE4 promoted increased in tube formation in an in vitro model of angiogenesis, which was also dependent upon STAT3 signaling.
[Scientific Reports]
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Vascular Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Hypertension

Scientists summarize the dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) components and their modification and degradation during hypertension and after antihypertensive treatment. They also discuss how alterations in the ECM amount, assembly, mechanical properties, and degradation fragment generation provide input into the pathological process of hypertension.
[Antioxidants & Redox Signaling]
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