Scientists establish that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was required for self-renewal of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Through conditional knockout they showed that BMPR-II deficient HSCs have impaired self-renewal and regenerative capacity.
Investigators found that loss of zinc finger HIT-type containing 1 (Znhit1) led to exhaustion of stem cell pool and impairment of hematopoietic function.
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Sun, S., Jiang, N., Jiang, Y., He, Q., He, H., Wang, X., Yang, L., Li, R., Liu, F., Lin, X., & Zhao, B. (2020). Chromatin remodeler Znhit1 preserves hematopoietic stem cell quiescence by determining the accessibility of distal enhancers. Leukemia, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0988-5 Cite
The authors aimed to understand the effect of cell competition on thymopoiesis, identify the cells involved, and determine how the process is regulated.
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Ramos, C. V., Ballesteros-Arias, L., Silva, J. G., Paiva, R. A., Nogueira, M. F., Carneiro, J., Gjini, E., & Martins, V. C. (2020). Cell Competition, the Kinetics of Thymopoiesis, and Thymus Cellularity Are Regulated by Double-Negative 2 to 3 Early Thymocytes. Cell Reports, 32(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107910 Cite
2F5 was confirmed to induce G0/G1 phase arrest in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells, and promoted APL cell differentiation combined with decreased DDX5 expression and increased reactive oxygen species production. Knockdown of DDX5 by siRNA also inhibited proliferation, promoted cell differentiation and enhanced ROS production in APL cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Wu, J., You, Y.-Q., Ma, Y.-X., Kang, Y.-H., Wu, T., Wu, X.-J., Hu, X.-X., Meng, Q.-H., Huang, Y., Zhang, N., & Pan, X.-B. (2020). DDX5-targeting fully human monoclonal autoantibody inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells by increasing ROS production. Cell Death & Disease, 11(7), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02759-5 Cite
At the molecular level, functional deficiency of the Nlrp3 inflammasome in hematopoietic stem progenitor cells leads to their defective migration in response to the major bone marrow homing chemoattractant stromal-derived factor 1 and to other supportive chemoattractants, including sphingosine-1-phosphate and extracellular adenosine triphosphate.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
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Adamiak, M., Abdel-Latif, A., Bujko, K., Thapa, A., Anusz, K., Tracz, M., Brzezniakiewicz-Janus, K., Ratajczak, J., Kucia, M., & Ratajczak, M. Z. (2020). Nlrp3 Inflammasome Signaling Regulates the Homing and Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSPCs) by Enhancing Incorporation of CXCR4 Receptor into Membrane Lipid Rafts. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10005-w Cite
Orchard Therapeutics announced that the company has received both orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation from the FDA for OTL-203, an ex vivo autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy in development for the treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.
[Orchard Therapeutics Limited]
Serum cytokine and catecholamine levels were measured prior to lymphodepleting chemotherapy, on the day of CAR T infusion and daily thereafter while patients remained hospitalized.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
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Faramand, R. G., Jain, M. D., Staedtke, V., Kotani, H., Bai, R.-Y., Reid, K., … Davila, M. L. (2020). Tumor Microenvironment composition and severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) Influence Toxicity in Patients with Large B Cell Lymphoma Treated with Axicabtagene Ciloleucel. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1434 Cite
Funding agencies behind the radical open-access initiative Plan S have announced a policy that could make it possible for researchers to bypass journals’ restrictions on open publishing.
Investigators prospectively evaluated a novel reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of alemtuzumab, hydroxyurea, fludarabine, melphalan, and thiotepa with a single-unit umbilical cord blood graft in 44 consecutive patients with inborn errors of metabolism, immunity, or hematopoiesis.
Some researchers worry students will miss out on certain practical and problem-solving skills and won’t be able to judge whether the hands-on work of a scientist is a good fit for them. But instructors are developing high-tech ways to simulate the field and lab experiences.
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced us to rethink what constitutes necessary travel. Many of this year’s conferences have been cancelled. Some have gone virtual. Nature presents an original analysis of the potential emissions savings of doing things differently.