Determinants of Resident Tissue Macrophage Identity and Function

The authors review recent findings within this context and discuss the technological advances that are revolutionizing the study of macrophage biology.
[Immunity]
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Targeting Metabolism to Improve the Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Immunotherapy

The authors explore current strategies that shift immune cell metabolism to pro-inflammatory states in the tumor microenvironment and highlight a need to better replicate physiologic conditions to select targets, clarify mechanisms, and optimize metabolic inhibitors.
[Molecular Cell]
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Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19

Several of the cytokines involved in COVID-19 employ a distinct intracellular signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAKs). JAK inhibition, therefore, presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for cytokine release syndrome, which is a common cause of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]
Luo, W., Li, Y.-X., Jiang, L.-J., Chen, Q., Wang, T., & Ye, D.-W. (2020). Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.06.007 Cite
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UCLA Receives Nearly $14 Million from NIH to Investigate Gene Therapy to Combat HIV

University of California, Lost Angeles (UCLA) researchers and colleagues have received a $13.65 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to investigate and further develop an immunotherapy known as CAR T, which uses genetically modified stem cells to target and destroy HIV.
[Univesity of California, Los Angeles]
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Exosomes: A Potential Therapeutic Tool Targeting Communications between Tumor Cells and Macrophages

Scientists summarize the roles and mechanisms of exosomes in the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages and the potential methods by which exosomes are used to target the communication between tumor cells and macrophages to treat cancer.
[Molecular Therapy]
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CD56 Regulates Human NK Cell Cytotoxicity through Pyk2

Investigators demonstrated that deletion of CD56 on the NK92 cell line led to impaired cytotoxic function. CD56-knockout cells failed to polarize during immunological synapse formation and have severely impaired exocytosis of lytic granules.
[eLife]
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Ligand-Induced Degradation of a CAR Permits Reversible Remote Control of CAR T Cell Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

The authors created a chimeric antigen-receptor (CAR) that was capable of on-demand downregulation by fusing the CAR to a previously developed ligand-induced degradation domain. Addition of a small molecule ligand triggered exposure of a cryptic degron within the ligand-induced degradation domain (LID), resulting in proteasomal degradation of the CAR-LID fusion protein and loss of CAR on the surface of T cells.
[Molecular Therapy]
Ligand-induced degradation of a CAR permits reversible remote control of CAR T cell activity in vitro and in vivo: Molecular Therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/molecular-therapy-family/molecular-therapy/fulltext/S1525-0016(20)30294-X Cite
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CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Glucocorticoid Resistance in Virus-Specific T Cells for Adoptive T-Cell Therapy Post Transplantation

In order to deliver protection against viral pathogens and allow at the same time necessary steroid therapy, scientists generated glucocorticoid-resistant T cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the glucocorticoid receptor in primary human virus-specific T-cell products.
[Molecular Therapy]
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Novel Long Non-Coding RNA lncAMPC Promotes Metastasis and Immunosuppression in Prostate Cancer by Stimulating LIF/LIFR Expression

The biological capacity of lncRNA named lncRNA activated in metastatic PCa (lncAMPC) in prostate cancer (PCa) was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The lncAMPC was overexpressed in tumor tissue and urine of metastatic PCa patients and promoted PCa tumorigenesis and metastasis.
[Molecular Therapy]
Zhang, W., Shi, X., Chen, R., Zhu, Y., Peng, S., Chang, Y., … Ren, S. (2020). Novel long non-coding RNA lncAMPC promotes metastasis and immunosuppression in prostate cancer by stimulating LIF/LIFR expression. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.06.013 Cite
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Targeting Nuclear LSD1 to Reprogram Cancer Cells and Reinvigorate Exhausted T Cells via a Novel LSD1-EOMES Switch

Researchers showed that circulating tumor cells isolated from immunotherapy-resistant metastatic melanoma patients expressed higher levels of nuclear lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) phosphorylated at serine 111 compared to responders, which is associated with co-expression of stem-like, mesenchymal genes.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
Tu, W. J., McCuaig, R. D., Tan, A. H. Y., Hardy, K., Seddiki, N., Ali, S., … Rao, S. (2020). Targeting Nuclear LSD1 to Reprogram Cancer Cells and Reinvigorate Exhausted T Cells via a Novel LSD1-EOMES Switch. Frontiers in Immunology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01228 Cite
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Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma: Hormetic Relationship to Outcome

MYC+ cells accounted for 21% and 18% of CD68+ and CD163+ cells, respectively. Numbers of MYC macrophages were significantly higher in EBV+ cases while no differences were observed for MYC+ macrophages between EBV+ and EBV cases.
[Scientific Reports]
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Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Human CD8+ Naïve and Effector Memory T Cells under Resting and Activating Conditions

Researchers evaluated twelve commonly used reference gene products in human naïve and effector memory CD8+ T cells under non-activated and activated conditions. They used five different statistical approaches for data analysis.
[Scientific Reports]
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