Innate Immunity at the Crossroads of Healthy Brain Maturation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The authors discuss the essential roles of microglia and innate immune signaling in the assembly and maintenance of a properly functioning nervous system.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Zengeler, K. E., & Lukens, J. R. (2021). Innate immunity at the crossroads of healthy brain maturation and neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-00487-7 Cite
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The BET Family in Immunity and Disease

Scientists cover the accumulating data about the roles of the BET family in innate immunity, and discuss the attractive prospect of manipulating the BET family as a new treatment for disease.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Wang, N., Wu, R., Tang, D., & Kang, R. (2021). The BET family in immunity and disease. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00384-4 Cite
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Targeting Cancer-Promoting Inflammation — Have Anti-Inflammatory Therapies Come of Age?

The authors review the current clinical advances and experimental findings supporting the utility of an anti-inflammatory approach to the treatment of solid malignancies.
[Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology]
Hou, J., Karin, M., & Sun, B. (2021). Targeting cancer-promoting inflammation — have anti-inflammatory therapies come of age? Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-00459-9 Cite
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Hsa_circ_0007456 Regulates the Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Toward Hepatocellular Carcinoma via the miR-6852-3p/ICAM-1 Axis

Scientists investigated the relationship between the expression levels of hsa_circ_0007456 in HCC and the susceptibility of NK cells, and found that the expression levels of hsa_circ_0007456 in HCC cell lines significantly influenced their susceptibility to NK cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Shi, M., Li, Z.-Y., Zhang, L.-M., Wu, X.-Y., Xiang, S.-H., Wang, Y.-G., & Zhang, Y.-Q. (2021). Hsa_circ_0007456 regulates the natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma via the miR-6852-3p/ICAM-1 axis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03334-8 Cite
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A Clinically Applicable and Scalable Method To Regenerate T-Cells from iPSCs for Off-the-Shelf T-Cell Immunotherapy

Scientists showed improved differentiation efficiency of T-cells from induced PSCs (iPSCs) derived from an antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell clone, or from T-cell receptor-transduced iPSCs, as starting materials.
[Nature Communications]
Iriguchi, S., Yasui, Y., Kawai, Y., Arima, S., Kunitomo, M., Sato, T., Ueda, T., Minagawa, A., Mishima, Y., Yanagawa, N., Baba, Y., Miyake, Y., Nakayama, K., Takiguchi, M., Shinohara, T., Nakatsura, T., Yasukawa, M., Kassai, Y., Hayashi, A., & Kaneko, S. (2021). A clinically applicable and scalable method to regenerate T-cells from iPSCs for off-the-shelf T-cell immunotherapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 430. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20658-3 Cite
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Human Intestinal Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells Comprise Transcriptionally and Functionally Distinct Subsets

Researchers investigated transcriptional and functional heterogeneity of human tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells through study of donor-derived TRM cells from intestinal transplant recipients.
[Cell Reports]
FitzPatrick, M. E. B., Provine, N. M., Garner, L. C., Powell, K., Amini, A., Irwin, S. L., Ferry, H., Ambrose, T., Friend, P., Vrakas, G., Reddy, S., Soilleux, E., Klenerman, P., & Allan, P. J. (2021). Human intestinal tissue-resident memory T cells comprise transcriptionally and functionally distinct subsets. Cell Reports, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108661 Cite
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EGR1 Is a Gatekeeper of Inflammatory Enhancers in Human Macrophages

Researchers analyzed the molecular determinants of monocytic and macrophagic commitment by profiling the EGR1 transcription factor. EGR1 is essential for monopoiesis and binds enhancers that regulate monocytic developmental genes such as CSF1R.
[Science Advances]
EGR1 is a gatekeeper of inflammatory enhancers in human macrophages | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/3/eaaz8836 Cite
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Induction of IL-10-Producing Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells by Allergen Immunotherapy Is Associated with Clinical Response

Scientists report a role of interleukin-10-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells in modulating grass-pollen allergy.
[Immunity]
Golebski, K., Layhadi, J. A., Sahiner, U., Steveling-Klein, E. H., Lenormand, M. M., Li, R. C. Y., Bal, S. M., Heesters, B. A., Vilà-Nadal, G., Hunewald, O., Montamat, G., He, F. Q., Ollert, M., Fedina, O., Lao-Araya, M., Vijverberg, S. J. H., Zee, A.-H. M. der, Drunen, C. M. van, Fokkens, W. J., … Shamji, M. H. (2021). Induction of IL-10-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells by allergen immunotherapy is associated with clinical response. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.12.013 Cite
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Targeting Ubiquitin Signaling for Cancer Immunotherapy

[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhou, X., & Sun, S.-C. (2021). Targeting ubiquitin signaling for cancer immunotherapy. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00421-2 Cite
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Antitumor Immunity Regulated by Aberrant ERBB Family Signaling

The authors discuss the mechanisms by which the signaling of ERBB family members affects not only autonomous cancer hallmarks, such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, but also antitumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment and the potential application of immune-genome precision medicine into immunotherapy.
[Nature Reviews Cancer]
Kumagai, S., Koyama, S., & Nishikawa, H. (2021). Antitumour immunity regulated by aberrant ERBB family signalling. Nature Reviews Cancer, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41568-020-00322-0 Cite
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A Subset of Liver Resident Natural Killer Cells Is Expanded in Hepatitis C-Infected Patients with Better Liver Function

LMCs were less responsive to toll-like receptor stimulation than blood mononuclear cells, with fewer pro-inflammatory gene-expression pathways up-regulated after in vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide and a TLR-7/8 agonist.
[Scientific Reports]
Doyle, E. H., Aloman, C., El-Shamy, A., Eng, F., Rahman, A., Klepper, A. L., Haydel, B., Florman, S. S., Fiel, M. I., Schiano, T., & Branch, A. D. (2021). A subset of liver resident natural killer cells is expanded in hepatitis C-infected patients with better liver function. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1551. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80819-8 Cite
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