Strategic Alliance a Shot in the Arm for Stem Cell Commercialization Efforts

Several Canadian-made cell therapies will take a major step closer to the clinic thanks to a new collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine and the Centre for Commercialization of Cancer Immunotherapy and Regenerative Medicine.
[Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine]
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Targeting CD39 in Cancer

The authors review the impact of CD39 expression and ectonucleotidase activity on immunity with a focus on the setting of oncology.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
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Single-Cell Mass Cytometry on Peripheral Blood Identifies Immune Cell Subsets Associated with Primary Biliary Cholangitis

Mass cytometry was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from primary biliary cholangitis patients and age-/sex-matched healthy controls to obtain immune cell abundance and marker expression profiles.
[Scientific Reports]
Jang, J. S., Juran, B. D., Cunningham, K. Y., Gupta, V. K., Son, Y. M., Yang, J. D., Ali, A. H., Enninga, E. A. L., Sung, J., & Lazaridis, K. N. (2020). Single-cell mass cytometry on peripheral blood identifies immune cell subsets associated with primary biliary cholangitis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12584. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69358-4 Cite
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Induction of Macrophage-Like Immunosuppressive Cells from Common Marmoset ES Cells by Stepwise Differentiation with DZNep

Investigators established the induction protocol of immunosuppressive cells from common marmoset ES cells. Although similar immunosuppressive macrophages could not be induced by same protocol as that for mouse pluripotent stem cells, they employed an inhibitor for histone methyltransferase, DZNep, and succeeded to induce them.
[Scientific Reports]
Tsuji, H., Otsuka, R., Wada, H., Murata, T., Sasaki, A., Itoh, M., Baghdadi, M., Sasaki, E., & Seino, K. (2020). Induction of macrophage-like immunosuppressive cells from common marmoset ES cells by stepwise differentiation with DZNep. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12625. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69690-9 Cite
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α-Hemolysin of Uropathogenic E. coli Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in THP-1 Macrophages

Researchers studied the role of purified recombinant α-hemolysin in inducing inflammatory responses and cell death in macrophages.
[Scientific Reports]
Verma, V., Kumar, P., Gupta, S., Yadav, S., Dhanda, R. S., Thorlacius, H., & Yadav, M. (2020). α-Hemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in THP-1 macrophages. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12653. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69501-1 Cite
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CD4 T Cell-Intrinsic Role for the T Helper 17 Signature Cytokine IL-17: Effector Resistance to Immune Suppression

The authors demonstrated that human CD4+ T cells exposed to a Th17-differentiating milieu were significantly more resistant to immune suppression by CD8+ T cells compared to control Th0 cells.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Crawford, M. P., Sinha, S., Renavikar, P. S., Borcherding, N., & Karandikar, N. J. (2020). CD4 T cell-intrinsic role for the T helper 17 signature cytokine IL-17: Effector resistance to immune suppression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005010117 Cite
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3D Bioprinting for Reconstituting the Cancer Microenvironment

Scientists discuss the applications of 3D bioprinting in mimicking cancer microenvironment, their use in immunotherapy as prescreening tools, and overview of current bioprinted cancer models.
[npj precision oncology]
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Classification of T-cell Activation via Autofluorescence Lifetime Imaging

T cells isolated from human peripheral blood and activated in culture using tetrameric antibodies against the surface ligands CD2, CD3 and CD28 showed specific activation-state-dependent patterns of autofluorescence lifetime.
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
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A Distinct Transcriptional Program in Human CAR T Cells Bearing the 4–1BB Signaling Domain Revealed by scRNA-Seq

Investigators performed transcriptional profiling of bulk CAR T cell populations and single cells to characterize the transcriptional states of human T cells transduced with CD3ζ, 4-1BB-CD3ζ, or CD28-CD3ζ co-stimulatory domains at rest and after activation by triggering their CAR or their endogenous T cell receptor.
[Molecular Therapy]
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French Science Bill Promises Boost to Public R&D

The French government this week unveiled a draft science bill that promises to increase public research spending with an extra €25 billion over the next ten years.
[ScienceInsider]
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Foreign Researchers Accused of Hiding Links to Chinese Military

Four Chinese nationals have been charged with visa fraud after revelations that they sent information on the layout of US labs and research carried out by colleagues back to China.
[The Scientist]
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P2X7 Receptor Activity Limits Accumulation of T Cells within Tumors

Investigators showed that P2X7 activity in tumor-infiltrating T cells induced cellular senescence and limited tumor suppression. P2X7 stimulation affected cell cycling of effector T cells and resulted in generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and p38 MAPK-dependent upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A.
[Cancer Research]
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