Autophagy-Mediated Activation of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Driven by Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived IL-15

Investigators found that MSCs did not influence the proliferation of mucosal-associated invariant (TMAIT) cells but strikingly induced an activated phenotype with an increased expression of CD69, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and granzyme B.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Song, C., Xu, W., Wu, H., Wang, X., Gong, Q., Liu, C., Liu, J., & Zhou, L. (2020). Photodynamic therapy induces autophagy-mediated cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via activation of the ROS/JNK signaling pathway. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03136-y Cite
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Sorrento Enters Into Merger Agreement to Acquire Late-Stage Oncology Company ACEA Therapeutics

Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. announced the signing of a merger agreement pursuant to which Sorrento will acquire ACEA Therapeutics, Inc. The acquisition will include late clinical stage drug Abivertinib, clinical stage candidate AC0058, preclinical stage candidate AC0939, and ACEA’s extensive proprietary library of small molecules, which potentially have applications for numerous human disease indications, including non-small cell lung cancer, B cell lymphomas, systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and viral infections.
[Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. (Globe Newswire, Inc.)]
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Kite Submits Supplemental Biologics License Application to US Food and Drug Administration for Tecartus® in Adult Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Kite announced that it has submitted a supplemental Biologics License Application to FDA for Tecartus® for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
[Kite (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
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Inositol 1,4, 5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase B Promotes Ca2+ Mobilization and the Inflammatory Activity of Dendritic Cells

Researchers showed that the IP3 receptor 3 and ITPKB, a kinase that converts IP3 to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, were both necessary for Ca2+ mobilization and NFAT activation in mouse and human dendritic cells.
[Science Signaling]
Marongiu, L., Mingozzi, F., Cigni, C., Marzi, R., Gioia, M. D., Garrè, M., Parazzoli, D., Sironi, L., Collini, M., Sakaguchi, R., Morii, T., Crosti, M., Moro, M., Schurmans, S., Catelani, T., Rotem, R., Colombo, M., Shears, S., Prosperi, D., … Granucci, F. (2021). Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B promotes Ca2+ mobilization and the inflammatory activity of dendritic cells. Science Signaling, 14(676). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aaz2120 Cite
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Type I Interferons Affect the Metabolic Fitness of CD8+ T Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Scientists showed downregulation of mitochondria-derived genes and mitochondria-associated metabolic pathways in IFN-High patients from transcriptomic analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
[Nature Communications]
Buang, N., Tapeng, L., Gray, V., Sardini, A., Whilding, C., Lightstone, L., Cairns, T. D., Pickering, M. C., Behmoaras, J., Ling, G. S., & Botto, M. (2021). Type I interferons affect the metabolic fitness of CD8 + T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1980. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22312-y Cite
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Realizing Innate Potential: CAR-NK Cell Therapies for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

While acute myeloid leukemia represents an intuitive disease in which to investigate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based immunotherapies, key biological differences to B-cell malignancies have complicated progress to date.
[Cancers]
Gurney, M., & O’Dwyer, M. (2021). Realizing Innate Potential: CAR-NK Cell Therapies for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Cancers, 13(7), 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071568 Cite
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Gain-of-Function Variants in SYK Cause Immune Dysregulation and Systemic Inflammation in Humans and Mice

Researchers identified damaging monoallelic SYK variants in six patients with immune deficiency, multi-organ inflammatory disease such as colitis, arthritis and dermatitis, and diffuse large B cell lymphomas.
[Nature Genetics]
Wang, L., Aschenbrenner, D., Zeng, Z., Cao, X., Mayr, D., Mehta, M., Capitani, M., Warner, N., Pan, J., Wang, L., Li, Q., Zuo, T., Cohen-Kedar, S., Lu, J., Ardy, R. C., Mulder, D. J., Dissanayake, D., Peng, K., Huang, Z., … Muise, A. M. (2021). Gain-of-function variants in SYK cause immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation in humans and mice. Nature Genetics, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00803-4 Cite
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Quantification of T Cell Clonality in Human T Cell Leukaemia Virus Type-1 Carriers Can Detect the Development of Adult T Cell Leukaemia Early

Scientists showed that adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) could be detected early in HTLV-1-carriers through quantification of T-cell receptor (TCR)Vβ subunit diversity on T-cells infected with HTLV-1 using an ‘oligoclonality index’.
[Blood Cancer Journal]
Wolf, S. N., Haddow, J., Greiller, C., Taylor, G. P., Cook, L. B. M., & Rowan, A. G. (2021). Quantification of T cell clonality in human T cell leukaemia virus type-1 carriers can detect the development of adult T cell leukaemia early. Blood Cancer Journal, 11(3), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00458-8 Cite
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Intestinal CD8+ T Cell Responses Are Abundantly Induced Early in Human Development but Show Impaired Cytotoxic Effector Capacities

Researchers investigated the maturation of the CD8+ T cell compartment in human fetal, infant and adult intestinal tissues. CD8+ T cells exhibiting a memory phenotype were already detected in fetal intestines and increased after birth.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Schreurs, R. R. C. E., Sagebiel, A. F., Steinert, F. L., Highton, A. J., Klarenbeek, P. L., Drewniak, A., Bakx, R., The, S. M. L., Ribeiro, C. M. S., Perez, D., Reinshagen, K., Geijtenbeek, T. B. H., van Goudoever, J. B., & Bunders, M. J. (2021). Intestinal CD8 + T cell responses are abundantly induced early in human development but show impaired cytotoxic effector capacities. Mucosal Immunology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00382-x Cite
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Targeting Macrophages in Cancer Immunotherapy

The authors summarize the role of macrophages in current immunotherapies and the advantages of targeting macrophages.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Duan, Z., & Luo, Y. (2021). Targeting macrophages in cancer immunotherapy. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00506-6 Cite
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Regulatory T Cells in Ischemic Stroke

Scientists describe how Treg cells fluctuate and play a role in the regulation of immune responses after ischemic stroke in both experimental animals and humans, and summarize their biological functions and mechanisms in both CNS and periphery.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Wang, H., Ye, J., Cui, L., Chu, S., & Chen, N. (2021). Regulatory T cells in ischemic stroke. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00641-4 Cite
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