Identification of a Distal Locus Enhancer Element That Controls Cell Type–Specific TNF and LTA Gene Expression in Human T Cells

Scientists showed that a highly conserved NFAT binding site within the distal noncoding element hHS-8 coordinately controlled TNF and LTA gene expression in human T cells.
[Journal of Immunology]
Jasenosky, L. D., Nambu, A., Tsytsykova, A. V., Ranjbar, S., Haridas, V., Kruidenier, L., Tough, D. F., & Goldfeld, A. E. (2020). Identification of a Distal Locus Enhancer Element That Controls Cell Type–Specific TNF and LTA Gene Expression in Human T Cells. The Journal of Immunology, 205(9), 2479–2488. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1901311 Cite
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Kinase Inhibition in Autoimmunity and Inflammation

Scientists address the latest discoveries around kinase inhibitors with an emphasis on clinically validated autoimmunity and inflammatory pathways.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]
Zarrin, A. A., Bao, K., Lupardus, P., & Vucic, D. (2020). Kinase inhibition in autoimmunity and inflammation. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41573-020-0082-8 Cite
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Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of First-Trimester Human Placental Macrophages, Hofbauer Cells

The authors identified a number of factors that Hofbauer cells (HBCs) secreted that could affect placental angiogenesis and remodeling. They determined that HBCs had the capacity to play a defensive role, where they were responsive to Toll-like receptor stimulation and were microbicidal.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Thomas, J. R., Appios, A., Zhao, X., Dutkiewicz, R., Donde, M., Lee, C. Y. C., Naidu, P., Lee, C., Cerveira, J., Liu, B., Ginhoux, F., Burton, G., Hamilton, R. S., Moffett, A., Sharkey, A., & McGovern, N. (2021). Phenotypic and functional characterization of first-trimester human placental macrophages, Hofbauer cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(1). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200891 Cite
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HOPS/Tmub1 Involvement in the NF-kB-Mediated Inflammatory Response Through the Modulation of TRAF6

The authors found that HOPS enhanced NF-κB activation leading to increase transcription of inflammatory mediators, through the reduction of IκBα stability.
[Cell Death & Disease]
HOPS/Tmub1 involvement in the NF-kB-mediated inflammatory response through the modulation of TRAF6 | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-03086-5#Abs1 Cite
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Cryopreservation Impairs 3D Migration and Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells

Scientists report that tumor cells embedded in a 3-dimensional collagen gel, however, are killed by cryopreserved natural killer (NK) cells at a 5.6-fold lower rate compared to fresh NK cells.
[Nature Communications]
Cryopreservation impairs 3-D migration and cytotoxicity of natural killer cells | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19094-0 Cite
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Practical Classification of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Intratumoral Heterogeneity, Mechanisms of Drug Resistance, and Novel Therapies

Despite several efforts, transcriptomic and genomic classifications have remained merely theoretic and most of the patients are being treated with chemotherapy. Driver alterations in potentially targetable genes, including PIK3CA and AKT, have been identified across triple negative breast cancer subtypes, prompting the implementation of biomarker-driven therapeutic approaches.
[npj breast cancer]
Marra, A., Trapani, D., Viale, G., Criscitiello, C., & Curigliano, G. (2020). Practical classification of triple-negative breast cancer: intratumoral heterogeneity, mechanisms of drug resistance, and novel therapies. Npj Breast Cancer, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-00197-2 Cite
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Assessment of Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Reveals Novel Mediators of the Lung Tumor Immune Response

Scientists identified the landscape of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the context of long non-coding RNA, known regulators of gene expression. They examined the lncRNA profiles of lung adenocarcinoma tumors by interrogating RNA sequencing data from microdissected and non-microdissected samples.
[Scientific Reports]
Assessment of long non-coding RNA expression reveals novel mediators of the lung tumour immune response | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73787-6 Cite
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Cell-Free DNA in Plasma as an Essential Immune System Regulator

Researchers showed that cell-free DNA presence and clearance in plasma of healthy individuals played an indispensable role in immune system regulation.
[Scientific Reports]
Korabecna, M., Zinkova, A., Brynychova, I., Chylikova, B., Prikryl, P., Sedova, L., Neuzil, P., & Seda, O. (2020). Cell-free DNA in plasma as an essential immune system regulator. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17478. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74288-2 Cite
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TREMFYA® (Guselkumab) Induces Clinical and Endoscopic Improvements in Patients with Moderately to Severely Active Crohn’s Disease based on Interim Results from Phase II Study

The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson announced Phase II interim data from the GALAXI 1 study, which showed TREMFYA® demonstrated results at week 12 in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease with inadequate response or intolerance to conventional therapies and/or biologics.
[Johnson & Johnson (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
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Two Subsets of Stem-Like CD8+ Memory T Cell Progenitors with Distinct Fate Commitments in Humans

Researchers identified two previously unrecognized subsets of clonally, epigenetically, functionally, phenotypically and transcriptionally distinct stem-like CD8+ memory T cells.
[Nature Immunology]
Galletti, G., De Simone, G., Mazza, E. M. C., Puccio, S., Mezzanotte, C., Bi, T. M., Davydov, A. N., Metsger, M., Scamardella, E., Alvisi, G., De Paoli, F., Zanon, V., Scarpa, A., Camisa, B., Colombo, F. S., Anselmo, A., Peano, C., Polletti, S., Mavilio, D., … Lugli, E. (2020). Two subsets of stem-like CD8 + memory T cell progenitors with distinct fate commitments in humans. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0791-5 Cite
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Systemic Anti–PD-1 Immunotherapy Results in PD-1 Blockade on T Cells in the Cerebrospinal Fluid

Scientists evaluated pembrolizumab concentrations and PD-1 blockade on T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected from 10 adult patients with high-grade gliomas who were participating in clinical trials of intracranially administered chimeric antigen receptor T cells and intravenous pembrolizumab.
[JAMA Oncology]
Portnow, J., Wang, D., Blanchard, M. S., Tran, V., Alizadeh, D., Starr, R., Dodia, R., Chiu, V., Brito, A., Kilpatrick, J., McNamara, P., Forman, S. J., Badie, B., Synold, T. W., & Brown, C. E. (2020). Systemic Anti–PD-1 Immunotherapy Results in PD-1 Blockade on T Cells in the Cerebrospinal Fluid. JAMA Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.4508 Cite
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