RORα Is a Critical Checkpoint for T Cell and ILC2 Commitment in the Embryonic Thymus

The authors demonstrated that functional innate lymphoid cells cells could arise in the embryonic thymus from shared T cell precursors, preceding the emergence of CD4+CD8+ T cells.
[Nature Immunology]
Ferreira, A. C. F., Szeto, A. C. H., Heycock, M. W. D., Clark, P. A., Walker, J. A., Crisp, A., Barlow, J. L., Kitching, S., Lim, A., Gogoi, M., Berks, R., Daly, M., Jolin, H. E., & McKenzie, A. N. J. (2021). RORα is a critical checkpoint for T cell and ILC2 commitment in the embryonic thymus. Nature Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00833-w Cite
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DsbA-L Deficiency in T Cells Promotes Diet-Induced Thermogenesis through Suppressing IFN-γ Production

Researchers showed that high-fat diet feeding greatly suppressed the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlated with reduced T cell mitochondrial function.
[Nature Communications]
Zhou, H., Peng, X., Hu, J., Wang, L., Luo, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Li, G., Ji, Y., Zhang, J., Bai, J., Liu, M., Zhou, Z., & Liu, F. (2021). DsbA-L deficiency in T cells promotes diet-induced thermogenesis through suppressing IFN-γ production. Nature Communications, 12(1), 326. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20665-4 Cite
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Tumor-Infiltrating Mast Cells Are Associated With Resistance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Researchers generated a humanized-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice.
[Nature Communications]
Somasundaram, R., Connelly, T., Choi, R., Choi, H., Samarkina, A., Li, L., Gregorio, E., Chen, Y., Thakur, R., Abdel-Mohsen, M., Beqiri, M., Kiernan, M., Perego, M., Wang, F., Xiao, M., Brafford, P., Yang, X., Xu, X., Secreto, A., … Herlyn, M. (2021). Tumor-infiltrating mast cells are associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20600-7 Cite
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The Thymus and the Science of Self

The authors discuss the evidence that the thymus serves as a unique lymphoid organ able to instruct T cells to recognize and be tolerant to harmless self before adopting the capacity to defend the body against potentially injurious non-self-antigens presented in the context of different challenges from infections to exposure to malignant cells.
[Seminars in Immunopathology]
Geenen, V. (2021). The thymus and the science of self. Seminars in Immunopathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-020-00831-y Cite
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Immune-Tolerance to Human iPS-Derived Neural Progenitors Xenografted Into the Immature Cerebellum Is Overridden by Species-Specific Differences in Differentiation Timing

Scientists found that the slower pace of differentiation of human neural precursors compared to that of rodents restricted induction of immune-tolerance to human antigens expressed before completion of maturation of the immune system.
[Scientific Reports]
Nato, G., Corti, A., Parmigiani, E., Jachetti, E., Lecis, D., Colombo, M. P., Delia, D., Buffo, A., & Magrassi, L. (2021). Immune-tolerance to human iPS-derived neural progenitors xenografted into the immature cerebellum is overridden by species-specific differences in differentiation timing. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 651. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79502-9 Cite
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E-Cigarettes Compromise the Gut Barrier and Trigger Inflammation

Using murine models of acute and chronic e-cigarette aerosol inhalation, murine colon transcriptomics and murine and human gut-derived organoids in co-culture models, researchers assessed the effects of e-cigarette use on the gut barrier.
[iScience]
E-cigarettes compromise the gut barrier and trigger inflammation: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(21)00003-1 Cite
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Toll-Like Receptor 7 Deficiency Suppresses Type 1 Diabetes Development by Modulating B-Cell Differentiation and Function

Scientists discovered that Tlr7-deficient (Tlr7−/−) nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of human type 1 diabetes, exhibited a significantly delayed onset and reduced incidence of type 1 diabetes compared with Tlr7-sufficient (Tlr7+/+) NOD mice. Mechanistic investigations showed that Tlr7 deficiency significantly altered B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Huang, J., Peng, J., Pearson, J. A., Efthimiou, G., Hu, Y., Tai, N., Xing, Y., Zhang, L., Gu, J., Jiang, J., Zhao, H., Zhou, Z., Wong, F. S., & Wen, L. (2021). Toll-like receptor 7 deficiency suppresses type 1 diabetes development by modulating B-cell differentiation and function. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00590-8 Cite
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Enhanced BCR Signaling Inflicts Early Plasmablast and Germinal Centre B Cell Death

Although immunisation with T-dependent antigens increased B-cell receptor signaling, it led to plasma cells reduction and increased apoptosis. Dependent on the antigen, the early germinal centre B cell response was equally reduced and apoptosis increased.
[iScience]
Enhanced BCR signalling inflicts early plasmablast and germinal centre B cell death: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(21)00006-7 Cite
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Critical Role of Synovial Tissue–Resident Macrophage Niche in Joint Homeostasis and Suppression of Chronic Inflammation

During synovial tissue homeostasis, both monocyte-derived F4/80int and self-renewing F4/80hi tissue–resident, macrophage populations were identified.
[Science Advances]
Huang, Q.-Q., Doyle, R., Chen, S.-Y., Sheng, Q., Misharin, A. V., Mao, Q., Winter, D. R., & Pope, R. M. (2021). Critical role of synovial tissue–resident macrophage niche in joint homeostasis and suppression of chronic inflammation. Science Advances, 7(2), eabd0515. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd0515 Cite
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Efficient IL-2R Signaling Differentially affects the Stability, Function, and Composition of the Regulatory T-Cell Pool

Investigators characterized a spontaneous mutant mouse strain endowed with a hypomorphic Tyr129His variant of CD25, the α-chain of IL-2R, which resulted in diminished receptor expression and reduced IL-2R signaling.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Permanyer, M., Bošnjak, B., Glage, S., Friedrichsen, M., Floess, S., Huehn, J., Patzer, G. E., Odak, I., Eckert, N., Zargari, R., Ospina-Quintero, L., Georgiev, H., & Förster, R. (2021). Efficient IL-2R signaling differentially affects the stability, function, and composition of the regulatory T-cell pool. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00599-z Cite
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A Noninflammatory mRNA Vaccine for Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Scientists showed that systemic delivery of nanoparticle-formulated 1 methylpseudouridine-modified messenger RNA coding for disease-related autoantigens results in antigen presentation on splenic CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells in the absence of costimulatory signals.
[Science]
Krienke, C., Kolb, L., Diken, E., Streuber, M., Kirchhoff, S., Bukur, T., Akilli-Öztürk, Ö., Kranz, L. M., Berger, H., Petschenka, J., Diken, M., Kreiter, S., Yogev, N., Waisman, A., Karikó, K., Türeci, Ö., & Sahin, U. (2021). A noninflammatory mRNA vaccine for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science, 371(6525), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3638 Cite
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