Rethinking Peripheral T Cell Tolerance: Checkpoints Across a T Cell’s Journey

Scientists compare and contrast the T cell tolerance checkpoints and discuss their specific roles, with the aim of providing an integrated view of T cell peripheral tolerance and fate regulation.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
ElTanbouly, M. A., & Noelle, R. J. (2020). Rethinking peripheral T cell tolerance: checkpoints across a T cell’s journey. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-00454-2 Cite
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Rapamycin Prevents Spontaneous Abortion by Triggering Decidual Stromal Cell Autophagy-Mediated NK Cell Residence

Scientists observed that the increased macroautophagy/autophagy of decidual stromal cells during decidualization, facilitates the adhesion and retention of decidual NK cells during normal pregnancy.
[Autophagy]
Lu, H., Yang, H.-L., Zhou, W.-J., Lai, Z.-Z., Qiu, X.-M., Fu, Q., Zhao, J.-Y., Wang, J., Li, D.-J., & Li, M.-Q. (2020). Rapamycin prevents spontaneous abortion by triggering decidual stromal cell autophagy-mediated NK cell residence. Autophagy, 0(ja), null. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1833515 Cite
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Expression of Leukotriene B4 Receptor 1 Defines Functionally Distinct DCs That Control Allergic Skin Inflammation

By generating Leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-producing enzyme LTA4H knockout mice and CD11c promoter-driven Cre recombinase-expressing BLT1 conditional knockout mice, researchers showed that the migration of BLT1hi dendritic cells exacerbated allergic contact dermatitis.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Koga, T., Sasaki, F., Saeki, K., Tsuchiya, S., Okuno, T., Ohba, M., Ichiki, T., Iwamoto, S., Uzawa, H., Kitajima, K., Meno, C., Nakamura, E., Tada, N., Fukui, Y., Kikuta, J., Ishii, M., Sugimoto, Y., Nakao, M., & Yokomizo, T. (2020). Expression of leukotriene B 4 receptor 1 defines functionally distinct DCs that control allergic skin inflammation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00559-7 Cite
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Biodiversity Intervention Enhances Immune Regulation and Health-Associated Commensal Microbiota among Daycare Children

Scientists conducted the first human intervention trial in which urban environmental biodiversity was manipulated to examine its effects on the commensal microbiome and immunoregulation in children.
[Science Advances]
Roslund, M. I., Puhakka, R., Grönroos, M., Nurminen, N., Oikarinen, S., Gazali, A. M., Cinek, O., Kramná, L., Siter, N., Vari, H. K., Soininen, L., Parajuli, A., Rajaniemi, J., Kinnunen, T., Laitinen, O. H., Hyöty, H., Sinkkonen, A., & Group, A. research. (2020). Biodiversity intervention enhances immune regulation and health-associated commensal microbiota among daycare children. Science Advances, 6(42), eaba2578. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba2578 Cite
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Uncoupling Interferon Signaling and Antigen Presentation to Overcome Immunotherapy Resistance Due to JAK1 Loss in Melanoma

Investigators generated models of interferon signaling defects in B16 murine melanoma observed in patients with acquired resistance to immune checkpoint blockade.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Kalbasi, A., Tariveranmoshabad, M., Hakimi, K., Kremer, S., Campbell, K. M., Funes, J. M., Vega-Crespo, A., Parisi, G., Champekar, A., Nguyen, C., Torrejon, D., Shin, D., Zaretsky, J. M., Damoiseaux, R. D., Speiser, D. E., Lopez-Casas, P. P., Quintero, M., & Ribas, A. (2020). Uncoupling interferon signaling and antigen presentation to overcome immunotherapy resistance due to JAK1 loss in melanoma. Science Translational Medicine, 12(565). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb0152 Cite
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SUSA2 Is an F-Box Protein Required for Autoimmunity Mediated by Paired NLRs SOC3-CHS1 and SOC3-TN2

Scientists report the identification of suppressor of Senescence-Associated E3 Ubiquitin Ligase 1 (SAUL1) 2 (susa2) and susa3 from the saul1-1 suppressor screen.
[Nature Communications]
Liang, W., Tong, M., & Li, X. (2020). SUSA2 is an F-box protein required for autoimmunity mediated by paired NLRs SOC3-CHS1 and SOC3-TN2. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5190. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19033-z Cite
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IL-22 Receptor Signaling in Paneth Cells Is Critical for Their Maturation, Microbiota Colonization, Th17-Related Immune Responses, and Anti-Salmonella Immunity

Using novel Paneth cell-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout mice, researchers showed that IL-22 signaling in Paneth cells was required for small intestinal host defense. They showed that Paneth cell maturation, antimicrobial effector function, expression of specific WNTs, and organoid morphogenesis were dependent on cell-intrinsic IL-22Ra1 signaling.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Gaudino, S. J., Beaupre, M., Lin, X., Joshi, P., Rathi, S., McLaughlin, P. A., Kempen, C., Mehta, N., Eskiocak, O., Yueh, B., Blumberg, R. S., van der Velden, A. W. M., Shroyer, K. R., Bialkowska, A. B., Beyaz, S., & Kumar, P. (2020). IL-22 receptor signaling in Paneth cells is critical for their maturation, microbiota colonization, Th17-related immune responses, and anti- Salmonella immunity. Mucosal Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00348-5 Cite
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Combination of rAd-p53 In Situ Gene Therapy and Anti-PD-1 Antibody Immunotherapy Induced Anti-Tumor Activity in Mouse Syngeneic Urogenital Cancer Models

Researchers undertook a novel combination therapy using rAd-p53 in situ gene therapy and immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-1 antibody for urogenital cancers. Three mouse syngeneic tumor cell lines, TRAMP-C2 (prostate), MBT-2 (bladder) and Renca (kidney) were used.
[Scientific Reports]
Kunimura, N., Kitagawa, K., Sako, R., Narikiyo, K., Tominaga, S., Bautista, D. S., Xu, W., Fujisawa, M., & Shirakawa, T. (2020). Combination of rAd-p53 in situ gene therapy and anti-PD-1 antibody immunotherapy induced anti-tumor activity in mouse syngeneic urogenital cancer models. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17464. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74660-2 Cite
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GD2-Specific CAR T Cells Encapsulated in an Injectable Hydrogel Control Retinoblastoma and Preserve Vision

Investigators generated GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor T lymphocytes and locally delivered them to mice with an in situ grafting retinoblastoma .
[Nature Cancer]
Wang, K., Chen, Y., Ahn, S., Zheng, M., Landoni, E., Dotti, G., Savoldo, B., & Han, Z. (2020). GD2-specific CAR T cells encapsulated in an injectable hydrogel control retinoblastoma and preserve vision. Nature Cancer, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00119-y Cite
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Environmental Pollutants and the Immune Response

Scientists summarize the major environmental pollutants that are attracting wide-ranging concern and the molecular basis underlying their effects on the immune system.
[Nature Immunology]
Suzuki, T., Hidaka, T., Kumagai, Y., & Yamamoto, M. (2020). Environmental pollutants and the immune response. Nature Immunology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0802-6 Cite
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CAR-T Cells Targeting a Nucleophosmin Neoepitope Exhibit Potent Specific Activity in Mouse Models of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Scientists report a human single-chain variable fragment, identified via yeast surface display, that specifically bound to the NPM1c epitope–HLA-A2 complex but not to HLA-A2 or to HLA-A2 loaded with control peptides
[Nature Biomedical Engineering]
Xie, G., Ivica, N. A., Jia, B., Li, Y., Dong, H., Liang, Y., Brown, D., Rizwan, R., & Chen, J. (2020). CAR-T cells targeting a nucleophosmin neoepitope exhibit potent specific activity in mouse models of acute myeloid leukaemia. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-020-00625-5 Cite
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