Macrophages in Microgravity: The Impact of Space on Immune Cells

Scientists review and summarize the literature investigating the effects of microgravity on macrophages and monocytes regarding the microgravity environment simulation/generation methods, cell sources, experiment durations, and parameters of interest utilized within the field.
[npj Microgravity]
Ludtka, C., Silberman, J., Moore, E., & Allen, J. B. (2021). Macrophages in microgravity: the impact of space on immune cells. Npj Microgravity, 7(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-021-00141-z Cite
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Adaptive Immunity at the Crossroads of Autophagy and Metabolism

The authors summarize and discuss the versatile roles of autophagy in regulating cellular metabolism and the implications of autophagy for immune cell function and fate, especially for T and B lymphocytes.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Metur, S. P., & Klionsky, D. J. (2021). Adaptive immunity at the crossroads of autophagy and metabolism. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00662-3 Cite
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Peripheral Nerve Resident Macrophages and Schwann Cells Mediate Cancer-Induced Pain

Researchers report that depletion of sciatic nerve resident macrophages (rMΦ) in mice attenuated mechanical/cold hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain evoked by intraplantar injection of melanoma or lung carcinoma cells. Targeted deletion of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (Trpa1) revealed a key role for Schwann cell TRPA1 in sciatic nerve rMΦ expansion and pain-like behaviors.
[Cancer Research]
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A Tumor-Specific Mechanism of Treg Enrichment Mediated by the Integrin αvβ8

Researchers describe a mechanism for Treg enrichment in mouse and human tumors mediated by the αvβ8 integrin.
[Science Immunology]
Seed, R. I., Kobayashi, K., Ito, S., Takasaka, N., Cormier, A., Jespersen, J. M., Publicover, J., Trilok, S., Combes, A. J., Chew, N. W., Chapman, J., Krummel, M. F., Lou, J., Marks, J., Cheng, Y., Baron, J. L., & Nishimura, S. L. (2021). A tumor-specific mechanism of Treg enrichment mediated by the integrin αvβ8. Science Immunology, 6(57). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abf0558 Cite
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Single-Cell Profiling of Myeloid Cells in Glioblastoma across Species and Disease Stage Reveals Macrophage Competition and Specialization

Scientists employed single-cell RNA sequencing and CITE-seq to map the glioblastoma immune landscape in mouse tumors and in patients with newly diagnosed disease or recurrence.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Pombo Antunes, A. R., Scheyltjens, I., Lodi, F., Messiaen, J., Antoranz, A., Duerinck, J., Kancheva, D., Martens, L., De Vlaminck, K., Van Hove, H., Kjølner Hansen, S. S., Bosisio, F. M., Van der Borght, K., De Vleeschouwer, S., Sciot, R., Bouwens, L., Verfaillie, M., Vandamme, N., Vandenbroucke, R. E., … Movahedi, K. (2021). Single-cell profiling of myeloid cells in glioblastoma across species and disease stage reveals macrophage competition and specialization. Nature Neuroscience, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00789-y Cite
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Fibroblast Activation Protein α-Targeted CD40 Agonism Abrogates Systemic Toxicity and Enables Administration of High Doses to Induce Effective Anti-tumor Immunity

Researchers developed a bispecific FAP-CD40 antibody, which induced CD40 stimulation solely in presence of fibroblast activation protein α (FAP), a protease specifically expressed in the tumor stroma.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Sum, E., Rapp, M., Fröbel, P., Clech, M. L., Dürr, H., Giusti, A. M. F., Perro, M., Speziale, D., Kunz, L., Menietti, E., Brünker, P., Hopfer, U., Lechmann, M., Sobieniecki, A., Appelt, B., Adelfio, R., Nicolini, V. G., Freimoser-Grundschober, A., Jordaan, W. S., … Umana, P. (2021). Fibroblast activation protein α-targeted CD40 agonism abrogates systemic toxicity and enables administration of high doses to induce effective anti-tumor immunity. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4001 Cite
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Myeloma-Secreted Galectin-1 Potently Interacts with CD304 on Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

Scientists investigated the interaction between CD304 expression on myeloid-derived suppressor cells and galectin-1 from malignant plasma cells in the context of autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
Lim, J.-Y., Kim, T. W., Ryu, D.-B., Park, S.-S., Lee, S.-E., Kim, B.-S., & Min, C.-K. (2021). Myeloma-secreted galectin-1 potently interacts with CD304 on monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Immunology Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0663 Cite
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Tissue Regulatory T Cells: Regulatory Chameleons

The deepening knowledge of tissue Treg cell biology will inform ongoing attempts to harness Treg cells for precision immunotherapeutics.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Muñoz-Rojas, A. R., & Mathis, D. (2021). Tissue regulatory T cells: regulatory chameleons. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00519-w Cite
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Auto-Aggressive CXCR6+ CD8 T Cells Cause Liver Immune Pathology in NASH

Using a preclinical mouse model that displays key features of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, researchers found an indispensable role for T cells in liver immunopathology.
[Nature]
Dudek, M., Pfister, D., Donakonda, S., Filpe, P., Schneider, A., Laschinger, M., Hartmann, D., Hüser, N., Meiser, P., Bayerl, F., Inverso, D., Wigger, J., Sebode, M., Öllinger, R., Rad, R., Hegenbarth, S., Anton, M., Guillot, A., Bowman, A., … Knolle, P. A. (2021). Auto-aggressive CXCR6 + CD8 T cells cause liver immune pathology in NASH. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03233-8 Cite
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Chimeric STAR Receptors Using TCR Machinery Mediate Robust Responses against Solid Tumors

Researchers constructed a double-chain chimeric receptor, termed as synthetic T cell receptor (TCR) and antigen receptor (STAR), which incorporated antigen-recognition domain of antibody and constant regions of TCR that engage endogenous CD3 signaling machinery.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Liu, Y., Liu, G., Wang, J., Zheng, Z., Jia, L., Rui, W., Huang, D., Zhou, Z., Zhou, L., Wu, X., Lin, S., Zhao, X., & Lin, X. (2021). Chimeric STAR receptors using TCR machinery mediate robust responses against solid tumors. Science Translational Medicine, 13(586). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb5191 Cite
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Genetically Engineered Myeloid Cells Rebalance the Core Immune Suppression Program in Metastasis

Scientists demonstrated that IL12-GEMy treatment reverses immune suppression in the pre-metastatic niche by activating antigen presentation and T cell activation, resulting in reduced metastatic and primary tumor burden and improved survival of tumor-bearing mice.
[Cell]
Kaczanowska, S., Beury, D. W., Gopalan, V., Tycko, A. K., Qin, H., Clements, M. E., Drake, J., Nwanze, C., Murgai, M., Rae, Z., Ju, W., Alexander, K. A., Kline, J., Contreras, C. F., Wessel, K. M., Patel, S., Hannenhalli, S., Kelly, M. C., & Kaplan, R. N. (2021). Genetically engineered myeloid cells rebalance the core immune suppression program in metastasis. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.048 Cite
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