Switch of Macrophage Fusion Competency by 3D Matrices

Scientists introduced a collagen-based 3D matrix to embed Raw264.7 cell line and primary rat bone marrow-derived macrophages.
[Scientific Reports]
Fang, J. Y., Yang, Z., & Han, B. (2020). Switch of macrophage fusion competency by 3D matrices. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10348. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67056-9 Cite
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HLAs, TCRs, and KIRs, a Triumvirate of Human Cell-Mediated Immunity

In all human cells, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I glycoproteins assemble with a peptide and takes it to the cell surface for surveillance by lymphocytes.
[Annual Review of Biochemistry]
Djaoud, Z., & Parham, P. (2020). HLAs, TCRs, and KIRs, a Triumvirate of Human Cell-Mediated Immunity. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 89(1), 717–739. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-biochem-011520-102754 Cite
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IL-18BP Is a Secreted Immune Checkpoint and Barrier to IL-18 Immunotherapy

Researchers showed that IL-18BP, a high-affinity IL-18 decoy receptor, was frequently upregulated in diverse human and mouse tumors and limited the anti-tumor activity of IL-18 in mice.
[Nature]
Zhou, T., Damsky, W., Weizman, O.-E., McGeary, M. K., Hartmann, K. P., Rosen, C. E., … Ring, A. M. (2020). IL-18BP is a secreted immune checkpoint and barrier to IL-18 immunotherapy. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2422-6 Cite
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Metabolic Engineering against the Arginine Microenvironment Enhances CAR-T Cell Proliferation and Therapeutic Activity

Scientists demonstrated T cells could be re-engineered to express functional argininosuccinate synthase or ornithine transcarbamylase enzymes, in concert with different chimeric antigen receptors.
[Blood]
Fultang, L., Booth, S., Yogev, O., Martins da Costa, B., Tubb, V., Panetti, S., … De Santo, C. (n.d.). Metabolic engineering against the arginine microenvironment enhances CAR-T cell proliferation and therapeutic activity. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004500 Cite
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IL10RA Modulates Crizotinib Sensitivity in NPM1-ALK-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

Through genome-wide CRISPR activation and knockout screens in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALCL) cell lines combined with RNA-seq data derived from ALK inhibitor relapsed patient tumors, researchers showed that resistance to ALK inhibition by crizotinib in ALCL could be driven by aberrant upregulation of IL10RA.
[Blood]
Prokoph, N., Probst, N. A., Lee, L. C., Monahan, J. M., Matthews, J. D., Liang, H.-C., … Turner, S. D. (n.d.). IL10RA Modulates Crizotinib Sensitivity in NPM1-ALK-positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003793 Cite
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Advances and Potential Pitfalls of Oncolytic Viruses Expressing Immunomodulatory Transgene Therapy for Malignant Gliomas

Scientists summarize the research advances related to oncolytic viruses that express immunomodulatory transgenes, as well as potential treatment pitfalls in patients with malignant gliomas.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Zhang, Q., & Liu, F. (2020). Advances and potential pitfalls of oncolytic viruses expressing immunomodulatory transgene therapy for malignant gliomas. Cell Death & Disease, 11(6), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2696-5 Cite
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Exosomes Released by Breast Cancer Cells under Mild Hyperthermic Stress Possess Immunogenic Potential and Modulate Polarization In Vitro in Macrophages

Cytotoxicity of different hyperthermic temperatures and treatment durations were tested in normal murine macrophages and breast cancer cell lines.
[International Journal of Hyperthermia]
Sen, K., Sheppe, A. E. F., Singh, I., Hui, W. W., Edelmann, M. J., & Rinaldi, C. (2020). Exosomes released by breast cancer cells under mild hyperthermic stress possess immunogenic potential and modulate polarization in vitro in macrophages. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 37(1), 696–710. https://doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2020.1778800 Cite
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COVID-19 Cancels Charity Galas and Walks. Science Is Paying the Price

Foundations that fund biomedical research in the United States, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere are reporting record revenue drops because of the pandemic. One major factor: It has forced them to cancel key fundraising events, including glitzy galas, sponsored walks, Broadway partnerships, and more.
[ScienceInsider]
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Oncolytic Virus-Derived Type I Interferon Restricts CAR T Cell Therapy

Investigators tested whether the inflammatory nature of oncolytic viruses and their ability to remodel the tumor microenvironment may help to recruit and potentiate the functionality of CAR T cells.
[Nature Communications]
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NCX1 Represents an Ionic Na+ Sensing Mechanism in Macrophages

Scientists showed that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 played a critical role in high salt-triggered Na+ influx, concomitant Ca2+ efflux, and subsequent augmented NFAT5 accumulation.
[PLoS Biology]
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Immunotherapies and Metastatic Cancers: Understanding Utility and Predictivity of Human Immune Cell Engrafted Mice in Preclinical Drug Development

Pre-clinical immuno-oncology models for studying metastases have long been limited to syngeneic or carcinogenesis-inducible models that have murine cancer and immune cells.
[Cancers]
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