Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Provide B-Cell Help in Vaccinated and Subsequently SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

Scientists investigated MAIT cell dynamics and function in rhesus macaque blood and bronchoalveolar lavage following mucosal adenovirus-SIV recombinant priming, intramuscular SIV envelope boosting and infection following repeated low-dose intravaginal SIV exposures.
[Scientific Reports]
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T-Cell Responses following Natural Influenza Infection or Vaccination in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Investigators evaluated the CD4+ and CD8+ responses to influenza A and B infection in a cohort of solid organ transplant patients.
[Scientific Reports]
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Peripherally Induced Brain Tissue–Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Mediate Protection against CNS Infection

Researchers showed that peripheral infections generated antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cells in the brain that adopted a unique tissue resident memory signature.
[Nature Immunology]
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Factors Associated with Immunosenescence during Early Adulthood in HIV-Infected Patients after Durable Efficient Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

Scientists evaluated which factors independently contributed to immunosenescence in HIV-infected young adults with a very different HIV infection duration, after durable efficient combination antiretroviral therapy.
[Scientific Reports]
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The Vascular Endothelium: The Cornerstone of Organ Dysfunction in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Venous thrombotic events, particularly pulmonary embolism, with elevated D-dimer and coagulation activation are highly prevalent in COVID-19 patients. The pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-2 receptor, and tumor necrosis factor-α, could also participate in endothelial dysfunction and leukocyte recruitment in the microvasculature.
[Critical Care]
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Immune Status Could Determine Efficacy of COVID-19 Therapies

Emerging evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can drive a diverse array of immune processes, raising the risk that immunosuppressant agents that are in clinical trials might be effective for some patients but detrimental for others.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]
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How Deadly Is the Coronavirus? Scientists Are Close to an Answer

Researchers use a metric called infection fatality rate (IFR) to calculate how deadly a new disease is. It is the proportion of infected people who will die as a result, including those who don’t get tested or show symptoms.
[Nature News]
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‘We’ve Got to Be Able to Move More Quickly.’ The Pandemic Reality of COVID-19 Clinical Trials

With speed borne of desperation comes risk and confusion—of trials too small to yield answers, of treatments overhyped, and of uncertainty about how to design the best studies possible. Science spoke with three clinical trial experts about this unprecedented period for modern medical research.
[ScienceInsider]
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Variations in Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor and Human Leukocyte Antigen Genes and Immunity to Malaria

Understanding the role of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens in immunity to malaria can help to better characterize antimalarial immune responses. The authors summarize the different KIRs and HLAs associated with immunity to malaria thus far.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
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Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19

Several of the cytokines involved in COVID-19 employ a distinct intracellular signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAKs). JAK inhibition, therefore, presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for cytokine release syndrome, which is a common cause of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]
Luo, W., Li, Y.-X., Jiang, L.-J., Chen, Q., Wang, T., & Ye, D.-W. (2020). Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.06.007 Cite
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The Tumor Suppressor TMEM127 Is a Nedd4-Family E3 Ligase Adaptor Required by Salmonella SteD to Ubiquitinate and Degrade MHC Class II Molecules

Through a genome-wide mutant screen of human antigen-presenting cells, investigators showed that the NEDD4 family HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and a tumor-suppressing transmembrane protein of unknown biochemical function, TMEM127, were required for SteD-dependent ubiquitination of mature MHC class II.
[Cell Host & Microbe]
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FOXO1 Promotes HIV Latency by Suppressing ER Stress in T Cells

Researchers report that, in resting T cells, FOXO1 inhibition impaired autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating two associated transcription factors: activating transcription factor 4 and nuclear factor of activated T cells.
[Nature Microbiology]
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