UCLA Receives Nearly $14 Million from NIH to Investigate Gene Therapy to Combat HIV

University of California, Lost Angeles (UCLA) researchers and colleagues have received a $13.65 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to investigate and further develop an immunotherapy known as CAR T, which uses genetically modified stem cells to target and destroy HIV.
[Univesity of California, Los Angeles]
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Potential Antiviral Options against SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Investigators developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. They identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. They also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine.
[Viruses]
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HIV-1-Associated Left Ventricular Cardiac Dysfunction in Humanized Mice

Longitudinal echocardiography was used to assess whether NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells and infected with HIV-1ADA could recapitulate the salient features of HIV-1 infection.
[Scientific Reports]
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CBASS Immunity Uses CARF-Related Effectors to Sense 3′–5′- and 2′–5′-Linked Cyclic Oligonucleotide Signals and Protect Bacteria from Phage Infection

Investigators discovered Enterobacter cloacae CD-NTase-associated protein 4 (Cap4) as a founding member of a diverse family of >2,000 bacterial receptors that responded to CD-NTase signals. Structures of Cap4 revealed a promiscuous DNA endonuclease domain activated through ligand-induced oligomerization.
[Cell]
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Considering How Biological Sex Impacts Immune Responses and COVID-19 Outcomes

The authors discuss available sex-disaggregated epidemiological data from the COVID-19 pandemic, introduce sex-differential features of immunity and highlight potential sex differences underlying COVID-19 severity.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
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The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis

Investigators report that periodontal inflammation exacerbates gut inflammation in vivo. Periodontitis led to expansion of oral pathobionts, including Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, in the oral cavity.
[Cell]
The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis: Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)30681-4 Cite
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The Tumor Suppressor TMEM127 Is a Nedd4-Family E3 Ligase Adaptor Required by Salmonella SteD to Ubiquitinate and Degrade MHC Class II Molecules

Through a genome-wide mutant screen of human antigen-presenting cells, investigators showed that the NEDD4 family HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and a tumor-suppressing transmembrane protein of unknown biochemical function, TMEM127, were required for SteD-dependent ubiquitination of mature MHC class II.
[Cell Host & Microbe]
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FOXO1 Promotes HIV Latency by Suppressing ER Stress in T Cells

Researchers report that, in resting T cells, FOXO1 inhibition impaired autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating two associated transcription factors: activating transcription factor 4 and nuclear factor of activated T cells.
[Nature Microbiology]
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CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Glucocorticoid Resistance in Virus-Specific T Cells for Adoptive T-Cell Therapy Post Transplantation

In order to deliver protection against viral pathogens and allow at the same time necessary steroid therapy, scientists generated glucocorticoid-resistant T cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the glucocorticoid receptor in primary human virus-specific T-cell products.
[Molecular Therapy]
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Huge Open-Access Journal Deal Inked by University of California and Springer Nature

The University of California (UC) system announced it has signed the biggest open-access deal in North America with one of the largest commercial scientific publishers. The agreement with Springer Nature includes a commitment by the publisher to explore making all articles that UC corresponding authors publish in the Nature family of journals immediately free to read on publication starting in 2022.
[ScienceInsider]
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BCG Vaccination in Humans Elicits Trained Immunity via the Hematopoietic Progenitor Compartment

Researchers showed that Bacille-Calmette-Guérin vaccination in healthy human volunteers induced a persistent transcriptional program connected to myeloid cell development and function within the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment in the bone marrow.
[Cell Host & Microbe]
Cirovic, B., Bree, L. C. J. de, Groh, L., Blok, B. A., Chan, J., Velden, W. J. F. M. van der, Bremmers, M. E. J., Crevel, R. van, Händler, K., Picelli, S., Schulte-Schrepping, J., Klee, K., Oosting, M., Koeken, V. A. C. M., Ingen, J. van, Li, Y., Benn, C. S., Schultze, J. L., Joosten, L. A. B., … Schlitzer, A. (2020). BCG Vaccination in Humans Elicits Trained Immunity via the Hematopoietic Progenitor Compartment. Cell Host & Microbe, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.05.014 Cite
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