Cancer Stem Cell News Volume 2.44 | Nov 6 2013

    Cancer Stem Cell News 2.44 November 6, 2013

    Cancer Stem Cell News

         In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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    Neuregulin Autocrine Signaling Promotes Self-Renewal of Breast Tumor-Initiating Cells by Triggering HER2/HER3 Activation
    Prompted by the hypothesis that HER2/HER3 signaling in breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs) promotes self-renewal and survival, researchers obtained evidence that neuregulin 1 produced by TICs promotes their proliferation and self-renewal in HER2-low tumors, including in triple-negative breast tumors. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR, HER2 or both receptors reduced breast TIC survival and self-renewal in vitro and in vivo and increased TIC sensitivity to ionizing radiation. [Cancer Res] Abstract
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    PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
    Loss of Androgen Receptor Expression Promotes a Stem-Like Cell Phenotype in Prostate Cancer through STAT3 Signaling
    Scientists demonstrated that loss of androgen receptor (AR) expression results in STAT3 activation in prostate cancer cells. AR downregulation further leads to development of prostate cancer stem-like cells, which requires STAT3. [Cancer Res] Abstract

    Sox2 Promotes Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells
    Investigators examined the role of cancer stem/progenitor cells in the development of resistance to the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Tamoxifen-resistant cells were enriched for stem/progenitors and expressed high levels of the stem cell marker Sox2. [EMBO Mol Med] Full Article

    Co-Delivery of Thioridazine and Doxorubicin Using Polymeric Micelles for Targeting Both Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cells
    Thioridazine, which was reported to kill cancer stem cells, was used in a combination therapy with doxorubicin (DOX) to eradicate both cancer cells and DOX-resistant cancer stem cells to mitigate the reoccurrence of the disease. [Biomaterials] Abstract

    Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Generates Breast Cancer Stem Cells
    Researchers demonstrated that reducing mitochondrial DNA content in human mammary epithelial cells activates the Calcineurin-dependent mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway, which induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like reprogramming to fibroblastic morphology, loss of cell polarity, contact inhibition and acquired migratory and invasive phenotype. [Oncogene] Abstract

    Protein Kinase Cι Maintains a Tumor-Initiating Cell Phenotype that Is Required for Ovarian Tumorigenesis
    Researchers demonstrated that Protein kinase Cι maintains a tumor-initiating cell (TIC) phenotype that drives ovarian tumorigenesis. A highly tumorigenic population of cells from human ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit properties of cancer stem-like TICs including self-renewal, clonal expansion, expression of stem-related genes, enhanced transformed growth in vitro, and aggressive tumor-initiating activity in vivo. [Mol Cancer Res] Abstract

    Osteosarcoma Cells Promote the Production of Pro-Tumor Cytokines in Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Inhibiting Their Osteogenic Differentiation through the TGF-β/Smad2/3 Pathway
    Scientists examined the effects of osteosarcoma cells on both the production of pro-tumor cytokines by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

    Association of Genetic Variants of Cancer Stem Cell Gene CD44 Haplotypes with Gallbladder Cancer Susceptibility in North Indian Population
    Germline variants in the CD44 gene have been associated with susceptibility to breast and nasopharyngeal carcinomas but no study in gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been done yet. The present study included 405 GBC patients and 200 healthy controls from North India. Tagger SNPs for CD44 were selected from the GIH population data. [Tumour Biol] Abstract

    Atorvastatin Inhibited Rho-Associated Kinase 1 (ROCK1) and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Mediated Adhesion and Differentiation of CD133+CD44+ Prostate Cancer Stem Cells
    Investigators analyzed the influence of atorvastatin on the cell adhesion and differentiation of CD133+CD44+ cells derived from prostate cancer biopsies and peripheral blood. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

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    Nuclear Receptors as Regulators of Stem Cell and Cancer Stem Cell Metabolism
    The authors introduce ESRRβ, DAX-1 and LRH-1 as putative regulators of metabolism in pluripotent embryonic stem cells. They also discuss the role of TR4, NGF1β, LXRβ and RARs in stemness. In addition, they summarize the current understanding of the potential roles of nuclear receptors in cancer stem cells. [Semin Cell Dev Biol] Abstract

    Regulation of Angiogenesis via Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells
    The authors focus on recent advancements in the knowledge of aberrant Notch signaling contributing to breast cancer angiogenesis, as well as its crosstalk with other factors contributing to angiogenesis and cancer stem cells. [Biochim Biophys Acta] Abstract

    Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.

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    Stem Cell Therapeutics Receives U.S. Orphan Drug Designation for the Use of Tigecycline to Treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    Stem Cell Therapeutics Corp., an immuno-oncology company developing cancer stem cell-related therapeutics, announced that it has been granted Orphan Drug designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the use of tigecycline in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. [Stem Cell Therapeutics Corp.] Press Release

    OMP-54F28 (Fzd8-Fc) Program Reaches Dose Escalation Milestone in Phase Ia Clinical Trial; Triggers $15 Million Payment from Bayer Pharma AG
    OncoMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has earned a $15 million milestone payment from Bayer Pharma AG related to achieving a dose escalation milestone in the Phase Ia clinical trial of OMP-54F28. OMP-54F28 is an antagonist of the Wnt pathway, a key cancer stem cell pathway. [GlobeNewswire, Inc.] Press Release

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