Cancer Stem Cell News Volume 3.22 | Jun 11 2014

Cancer Stem Cell News 3.22 June 11, 2014

Cancer Stem Cell News

     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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SOX2 Controls Tumor Initiation and Cancer Stem-Cell Functions in Squamous-Cell Carcinoma
Researchers found that Sox2, a transcription factor expressed in various types of embryonic and adult stem cells, was the most upregulated transcription factor in the cancer stem cells of squamous skin tumors in mice. [Nature] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
MicroRNA-205 Signaling Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Fate and Tumorigenesis
Knockdown of microRNA-205 in mammary epithelial cells promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition, disrupted epithelial cell polarity, and enhanced symmetric division to expand the stem cell population. [J Clin Invest]
Full Article

Ewing’s Sarcoma Precursors Are Highly Enriched in Embryonic Osteochondrogenic Progenitors
Researchers introduced a Ewing’s sarcoma-associated genetic fusion of the genes encoding the RNA-binding protein EWS and the transcription factor ETS (EWS-ETS) into a fraction of cells enriched for osteochondrogenic progenitors derived from the embryonic superficial zone of long bones collected from late gestational murine embryos. EWS-ETS fusions efficiently induced Ewing’s sarcoma-like small round cell sarcoma formation by these cells. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Commensal Bacteria Drive Endogenous Transformation and Tumor Stem Cell Marker Expression through a Bystander Effect
The authors proposed that selected commensals polarize colon macrophages to produce endogenous mutagens that initiate chromosomal instability, lead to expression of progenitor and tumor stem cell markers, and drive colorectal cancer through a bystander effect. [Gut] Full Article

Hippo Coactivator YAP1 Upregulates SOX9 and Endows Stem-Like Properties to Esophageal Cancer Cells
Scientists showed that the transcriptional co-activator YAP1 is a major determinant of cancer stem cell properties in non-transformed cells and in esophageal cancer cells by direct upregulation of SOX9. [Cancer Res] Abstract

MicroRNA-128 Suppresses Prostate Cancer by Inhibiting BMI-1 to Inhibit Tumor-Initiating Cells
Researchers showed that exogenously introduced microRNA-128 suppresses tumor regeneration in multiple prostate cancer xenograft models. Cancer stem-like cell associated properties were blocked, including holoclone and sphere formation as well as clonogenic survival. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Essential Role of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3) for the Maintenance of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stem Cells Is Associated with the STAT3 Pathway
Researchers elucidated the mechanisms by which lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regulated. To explore the function in CSCs they manipulated their expression followed by colony and tumor formation assays. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Notch1 Stimulation Induces a Vascularization Switch with Pericyte-Like Cell Differentiation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells
Scientists have uncovered a close link between the Notch1 pathway and the tumoral vascularization process of Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) stem cells. They observed that although the Notch1 receptor was activated, the typical target proteins were not or barely expressed in two explored GBM stem cell cultures. [Stem Cells] Abstract

CT45A1 Acts as a New Proto-Oncogene to Trigger Tumorigenesis and Cancer Metastasis
Overexpression of cancer/testis antigen-45 family (CT45)A1 in breast cancer cells markedly upregulated various oncogenic and metastatic genes, constitutively activated ERK and CREB signaling pathways, promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and increased cell stemness, tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis, whereas silencing CT45A1 significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Molecular Targeting of TRF2 Suppresses the Growth and Tumorigenesis of Glioblastoma Stem Cells
Researchers showed viral vector-mediated delivery of shRNAs targeting telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA depletes TRF2 and repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor from glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) isolated from patient specimens. As a result, GSC proliferation is reduced and the level of proteins normally expressed by postmitotic neurons is increased, suggesting that loss of TRF2 engages a cell differentiation program in the GSCs. [Glia] Abstract

miR-145 Regulates Cancer Stem-Like Properties and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Adenocarcinoma-Initiating Cells
Researchers report that the expression level of microRNA-145 (miR-145) was downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and negatively correlated with the expression level of Oct4. miR-145 inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer-initiating cells, partially by regulating Oct4 expression. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

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CXCL12 Modulation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 Activity in Human Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells and Regulation of the Tumor Microenvironment
This review covers recent developments on the role of CXCL12/CXCR4-CXCR7 networks in glioblastoma progression and the potential translational impact of their targeting. [Front Cell Neurosci] Full Article

Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Regulatory Networks, Stem Cell Niches, and Disease Relevance
Accumulating evidence has shown that cancer stem cells, the cancer cells that have long-term proliferative potential and the ability to regenerate tumors with phenotypically heterogeneous cell types, are important mediators of tumor metastasis and cancer relapse. In breast cancer, these cells often possess attributes of cells that have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.

Lilly Announces Top-Line Results of Phase III Hepatocellular Carcinoma Trial
Eli Lilly and Company announced that the Phase III REACH trial of CYRAMZA™ in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as liver cancer, did not meet its primary endpoint. [Eli Lilly and Company]
Press Release

Isis Pharmaceuticals Earns $15 Million from AstraZeneca for Initiation of Phase I Study of ISIS-AR Rx
Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that AstraZeneca has initiated a Phase I clinical study of ISIS-ARRx in patients with cancer. Isis earned a $15 million milestone payment associated with the clinical advancement of ISIS-ARRx. ISIS-ARRx is an antisense drug designed to treat patients with prostate cancer by inhibiting the production of the androgen receptor. [Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Halozyme to Resume PEGPH20 Clinical Program in Pancreatic Cancer
Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has removed the clinical hold on patient enrollment and dosing of PEGPH20 in the ongoing Phase II trial evaluating PEGPH20 in patients with pancreatic cancer permitting the study to resume under a revised protocol. [Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cells and Cancer (Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer and Stem Cell Biology (University of Pennsylvania)

Research Officers – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Genome Institute of Singapore)

PhD Studentship – Cancer Studies (Cardiff University)

PhD Scholarship – Inorganic Nanoparticles for Cancer Stem Cell Targeting and Detection (The Italian Institute of Technology)

Positions for Principal Investigators – Translational Medical Research of Cancer Biology (Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology/Cancer Biology (Oregon Health and Science University)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Cancer Genomics (University of Chicago)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Development and Stem Cells (University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Cancer Research (German Cancer Research Center [DKFZ])

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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