|Cancer Stem Cell News 6.04 February 1, 2017|
Researchers found that one specific microRNA molecule, miR-141, not only inhibited tumor growth but significantly retarded cancer metastasis in several preclinical prostate cancer models. Taken together with the findings from previous studies reporting the molecule’s powerful tumor-suppression capability, the current study demonstrates the potential of miR-141 as an inhibitor of prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and suggests that synthetic miR-141 may be developed as a “replacement” therapeutic to target prostate cancer metastasis. [Press release from the Roswell Park Cancer Institute discussing online prepublication in Nature Communications]
Investigators showed that human basal stem cells (BSCs) isolated from heavy smokers proliferate extensively, whereas their alveolar progenitor cell counterparts have limited colony-forming capacity. They demonstrated that this difference arises in part because of the ability of BSCs to repair their DNA more efficiently than alveolar cells following ionizing radiation or chemical-induced DNA damage. [PLoS Biol]
In two doxycycline-inducible models where oncogenic H-RasG12V is targeted either to the epidermal basal/stem cell layer with a Keratin14-rtTA transgene, or committed progenitor/suprabasal cells with an Involucrin-tTA transgene, investigators observed strikingly distinct tumor immune responses. These data showed that position of tumor initiating cells within a stratified squamous epithelial tissue provokes distinct B and CD4 T cell interactions. [Cancer Immunol Res]
The authors demonstrated that OV6 expression was closely associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients’ clinical outcome and prognosis. OV6+ cells possessed stronger stem-like properties, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity, chemo-resistance, invasion, and metastasis. [Cancer Lett]
Researchers used a combination of molecular and cellular assays on primary mammary tumor cells from the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse with or without CCR7 to examine the signaling crosstalk between CCR7 and Notch pathways. They showed that CCR7 functionally intersects with the Notch signaling pathway to regulate mammary cancer stem-like cells. [Mol Cancer]
Via retroviral library screening, scientists identified nuclear receptor-interacting protein 2 (NRIP2) as a novel interactor of the Wnt pathway from enriched colorectal cancer colosphere cells. NRIP2 was significantly up-regulated in colorectal cancer initiating cells from both cell lines and primary colorectal cancer tissues. [Mol Cancer]
Investigators found that a dramatic increase in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and an induction of local CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. In vitro studies demonstrated that VEGF, via activation of VEGFR2, increased the number of CD133+ CSCs and enhanced their capacity for self-renewal by inducing the expression of Nanog. [Sci Rep]
The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor activities of a HDAC inhibitor, N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) hepatonomide (HNHA) alone and in combination with sorafenib in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells in vitro and in vivo and to explore its effects on apoptotic cell death pathways. Data showed that HNHA and sorafenib synergistically decreased cell viability in ATC cells, and also significantly increased apoptotic cell death in these cells, as proved by the cleavage of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. [Neoplasia]
Scientists revealed that zinc can suppress stem cell properties of lung cancer cells. Such findings were proved in different lung cancer cell lines and it was found that cancer stem cell markers, stem cell-associated transcription factors, and the ability to form tumor spheroid were dramatically suppressed by zinc treatments. [Am J Physiol Cell Physiol]
The goal was to determine the regulatory functions of HOTAIR in the processes of self-renewal capacity, tumor formation and proliferation of CSCs derived from breast cancer. After the identification of CSC properties, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that HOTAIR, but not other cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs, is highly upregulated in both CSC-MCF7 and CSC-MB231 populations compared with MCF7 and MB231 populations. [PLoS One]
Studies have shown that OCT-4 and Nanog overexpression induced the formation of cancer stem cell-like cells through dedifferentiation and enhanced malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma, and reprogramming SOX-2 in pancreatic cancer cells also promoted the dedifferentiation process. Researchers investigated this phenomenon in glioma, lung cancer and hepatoma cells and found that the transcription factors mentioned before were highly expressed under hypoxic conditions and induced the formation of spheres, which exhibited asymmetric division and cell cycle arrest. [Cell Death Discov]
Selective targeting of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) may provide therapeutic benefit and several recent reports have indicated this may be possible. The authors review drugs targeting CSCs, in selected epithelial cell-derived cancers. [Stem Cells]
In the past few decades, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified and characterized in many tumors including liver cancer. Researchers review the recent advances in the understanding of the biology of liver CSCs and the development of strategies for their treatment. [Mol Cancer]
Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
Verastem, Inc. announced dosing of the first patient in a new clinical trial evaluating avelumab, an investigational fully human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody, in combination with Verastem’s defactinib, an investigational focal adhesion kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. [Verastem, Inc.]
Perthera, Inc. announced that Novartis will use Perthera’s unique cancer patient network to identify breast and lung cancer patients for targeted therapy trials. [Perthera, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC.)]
ESSA Pharma Inc. announced the receipt of a US$4.0 million payment from the Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas. The payment is part of a total non-dilutive grant of US$12.0 million, repayable out of potential product revenues, which was originally awarded in February 29, 2014. [ESSA Pharma Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC.)]
The grassroots team coordinating the March for Science on Washington, D.C., have now set a date: 22 April. And they are inviting organizers in cities around the world to lead parallel demonstrations. [ScienceInsider]
Order barring citizens of seven countries from entering the United States has left many confused and afraid. Nature spoke to more than 20 researchers affected by the new policy, who described their feelings of fear, shock and determination. [Nature News]
Trump’s harsh stance toward Mexico has made scientists nervous about the fate of U.S. funding for cross-border collaborations. “The worry is that [Trump] will limit, or perhaps end, some of the academic exchange we have,” either through new regulations or by cutting off money for collaborations, says Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi, a geophysicist at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and president of the Mexican Academy of Sciences. The U.S. National Science Foundation currently supports about 200 projects with Mexican collaborators. [ScienceInsider]
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