|Cancer Stem Cell News 7.33 August 22, 2018|
In nonadherent conditions, glioma stem cells displayed protective autophagy and anoikis-resistance, which correlated with expression of SDCBP/MDA-9/Syntenin. When SDCBP/MDA-9/Syntenin was absent, this protective mechanism was deregulated, leading to highly elevated and sustained levels of autophagy and consequently decreased cell survival. [Autophagy]
Investigators attempted to bypass limitations of abundant tumor source and predetermined immune selection by in vivo propagating patient-derived xenografts from human malignant rhabdoid tumor, a rare and lethal pediatric neoplasm, to an advanced state in which most cells behave as CSCs. They identified ALDH1 and lysyl oxidase as relevant targets and provided a larger framework for target and drug discovery in rare pediatric cancers. [Stem Cell Reports]
Inhibition of miR-1246 in oral CSCs significantly reduced stemness hallmarks, while overexpression of miR-1246 enhanced these characteristics. Scientists verified that miR-1246-inhibited CCNG2 contributed to the cancer stemness of oral squamous cell carcinoma. [Cancers]
The mRNA expression of CHI3L1 in chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) ovarian cancer stem-like cells was three-fold higher than in CA5171 parental cells. CHI3L1 promoted the properties of ovarian cancer stem-like cells including generating more and larger tumor spheroids and a higher percentage of ALDH+ in tumor cells, and promoting resistance to cytotoxic drug-induced apoptosis. [Endocr Relat Cancer]
Scientists showed that CD44+ bladder cancer cells had a higher invasion ability and augmented epithelial-mesenchymal transition compared with CD44 cells. Blockade of IL-6 attenuated the expression of CD44, cancer stem-cell-like properties, and aggressive tumor behavior in vitro and in vivo. [Ann Surg Oncol]
Inflammatory chemokine CXCL1, present in large amounts in dendritic cells isolated from colon cancer patients, and SW620-conditioned tumor-associated dendritic cells, enhanced CSC characteristics in cancer, supported by enhanced anchorage-independent growth, CD133 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. [Int J Mol Sci]
Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) exhibited significant G1 and G2/M phase arrest and increased apoptosis with higher doses of radiation but there was no difference between the two dose rates at each given dose. In a GSC-derived preclinical model of glioblastoma, radiation extended animal survival, but there was no difference in survival in mice receiving different dose rates of radiation. [PLoS One]
miR-let-7b transfection efficiency using ultrasound-targeted micro-bubble destruction (UTMD) was significantly higher than other groups except lipofectamine group through flow cytometry. The cell viability of all groups decreased after transfection, and the late apoptosis rate of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells after miR-let7b transfection induced by UTMD was 2.62%, while the non-treated cells was 0.02%. [Biosci Rep]
Co-expression analysis of stem cell and CSC markers with a proliferation marker in high grade tumors revealed dual positive proliferating stem and CSCs, few non-proliferating stem/CSC and only KI67+ cells in cortex, signifying dynamic populations and interesting cellular hierarchy in the cortex region. [J Ovarian Res]
Researchers individually tracked 1,127 single MCF-7 and 696 single T47D human breast tumor cells over the course of 14 days. At 24 hours post seeding, they could predict total spheres on day 14 with 98% accuracy in both lines. This approach removed cell aggregation and potentially shortened a 5-14 day assay to 24 hours. [iScience]
The authors discuss how the chemical diversity and versatility offered by metals has been harnessed to develop an unprecedented, emerging class of metallopharmaceuticals; CSC-active inorganics. A detailed account of their mechanism(s) of action is provided, and possible future directions for exploration are also put forward. [Chembiochem]
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Tolero Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has entered into a clinical research collaboration with AbbVie, exploring the potential of combination therapy with AbbVie’s venetoclax and Tolero’s investigational agent, Alvocidib, for the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia. [Tolero Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]
Trovagene, Inc. announced completion of the second dosing cohort of Onvansertib, a first-in-class, third generation, highly-selective oral polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor, in combination with standard-of-care low-dose cytarabine, in its Phase Ib/II clinical trial in patients with acute myeloid Leukemia. [Trovagene, Inc.]
Imago BioSciences announced that the Phase I/IIa clinical trial of IMG-7289 for the treatment of high-risk acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome has fully enrolled at 45 patients. [Imago BioSciences]
Ignoring President Donald Trump’s proposed budget, the Senate is setting up to approve a $2 billion boost in funding for the National Institutes of Health. [Fierce Biotech]
Sen. Bill Cassidy is trying to help hundreds of chimpanzees enjoy an easy retirement in his home state of Louisiana. The Republican is pushing for an amendment to a major appropriations bill winding its way through Congress this week that would force the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to make good on a 2015 promise to move all its chimps out of research facilities. [STAT News]
A combination of public opposition, intense regulations, and rising costs in the EU make conditions in China and elsewhere attractive for studying monkeys. [The Scientist]
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