|Cancer Stem Cell News 7.40 October 10, 2018|
The expression of iNOS in CD24+CD133+ liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs), but not CD24−CD133− LCSCs, promoted Notch1 signaling and stemness characteristics in vitro and in vivo, as well as accelerating hepatocellular carcinoma initiation and tumor formation in the mouse xenograft tumor model. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Investigators found that the histone methylation regulator Pax interaction with transcription-activation domain protein-1 (PTIP) was required to maintain the integrity of the bone marrow (BM) niche by promoting osteoclast differentiation. Exposure of acute myeloid leukemia cells to a PTIP-deficient BM microenvironment led to a reduction in leukemia-initiating cells and increased survival upon transplantation. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Overexpression of CDK1, but not its kinase-dead variant, in melanoma cells increased their spheroid forming ability, tumorigenic potential, and tumor-initiating capacity; inhibition of CDK1 with pharmacological agents reduced these characteristics, which was unexplained by the role of CDK1 in regulating the cell cycle. Knockout of Sox2 in CDK1-overexpressing cells reduced CDK1-driven tumor-initiating capacity substantially. [Cancer Res]
Researchers found that interleukin-8 (IL-8) was overexpressed in colon and lung cancer cells with CSC-like characteristics and was required for CSC properties, including tumor-initiating abilities. An O-GlcNAcylation inhibitor, OSMI1, reduced CSC number and tumor development in vivo. [Oncogene]
Treatment in vitro of primary chronic myeloid leukemia cells with MEK5/ERK5 inhibitors, but not tyrosine kinase inhibitors, strikingly reduced culture repopulation ability, serial colony formation ability, long-term culture-initiating cells, and CD26-expressing cells. [Stem Cell Reports]
Overexpression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) suppressed the proliferation, migration, gemcitabine resistance, stem cell-like properties, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells by directly binding to and suppressing miR-221 expression and enhancing SOCS3 expression. [Mol Ther Nucleic Acids]
Scientists generated HepG2 subclones with enriched CSC potential by application of the spheroid formation method and subsequent single-cell cloning. The observed characteristics could clearly be correlated with the expression of CSC markers that might have prognostic value in the clinical hepatocellular carcinoma setting. [J Cell Mol Med]
Investigators found that FL118 alone preferentially killed cisplatin-resistant cancer cells, while a combination of FL118 with cisplatin synergistically killed resistant pancreatic cancer cells and reduced spheroid formation of treatment-resistant pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. [J Exp Clin Cancer Res]
Compared with normal human astrocytes, glioma cancer stem cells (GSCs) grown on laminin-coated dishes overexpressed stemness markers as well as αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Scientists identified that treatment of GSC with 25 µM 1a-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) for 48 hours elicited detachment-dependent anoikis not accompanied by necrosis-dependent cell death. 1a-RGD did not affect cell viability, but instead it markedly inhibited GSC migration. [Int J Oncol]
ALDH1High melanoma cells were sensitive to nifuroxazide, while ALDH1A3 loss-of-function mutations conferred drug resistance. In tumors, nifuroxazide targeted ALDH1High melanoma subpopulations with the subsequent loss of melanoma-initiating cell potential. [Cell Chem Biol]
The authors review recent progress in the identification and analysis of normal prostate stem/progenitor cells, as well as putative CSCs in both genetically engineered mouse models and in human tissue. [Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med]
Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
West Virginia University (WVU)’s School of Pharmacy will soon become one of the few pharmacy schools in the nation that leads a center of biomedical research excellence. Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), these centers support interdisciplinary, thematically related research into preventing, diagnosing and treating health problems. [West Virginia University]
Kazia Therapeutics Limited announced the successful completion of Part A, the dose escalation component, of its Phase I study of Cantrixil in ovarian cancer. [Kazia Therapeutics Limited]
Postdocs at Columbia University voted to unionize, with representation from the United Auto Workers, according to The Associated Press. The organization represents the first postdoc union at a private university in the United States. [The Scientist]
ResearchGate, a popular networking platform where scientists can post their published work, has a complicated relationship with academic publishers. A number of them have accused the site of illicitly disseminating copyrighted work, and two of these—Elsevier and the American Chemical Society—filed a lawsuit in Germany last year to try to force ResearchGate to change its practices. [The Scientist]
China’s total spending on R&D rose a robust 12.3% last year to a record 1.76 trillion yuan ($254 billion), according to a government report. Already second in the world in R&D spending behind the United States, China has narrowed the gap. [ScienceInsider]
An analysis of industry-funded clinical trials has found that drug companies are often heavily involved in research — but are not always transparent about it. [Nature News]
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