|Cancer Stem Cell News 7.43 October 30, 2018|
Using a combination of gain- and loss-of-function approaches in several cellular contexts, the authors showed that YAP/TAZ are necessary to induce the effects of the inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex, such as cell proliferation, acquisition of stem cell-like traits and liver tumorigenesis. [Nature]
Scientists found that TRIB3 interacts with beta-catenin and TCF4 in intestine cells to increase expression of genes associated with CSCs. Knockdown of TRIB3 reduced colon neoplasia in mice, migration of colorectal cancer cells, and their growth as xenograft tumors in mice. [Gastroenterology]
Activation of the P4HA/HIF-1 axis enhanced cancer cell stemness, accompanied by decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species levels. Inhibition of P4HA1 sensitized triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel and doxorubicin in xenografts and patient-derived models. [Nat Commun]
miR-584-5p inhibited medulloblastoma growth and prolonged survival of mice in pre-clinical tumor models. miR-584-5p overexpression caused cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and spindle defects in medulloblastoma cells. [Nat Commun]
The silencing or inactivation of protein arginine methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) inhibited glioblastoma multiforme cell growth and glioblastoma stem cell self-renewal in vitro, and suppressed orthotopic tumor growth, accompanied with significant deregulation of genes mainly associated with cell cycle progression and pathways in cancer. [Nat Commun]
Researchers showed that the integrated stress response (ISR) is uniquely active in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and facilitates their persistence. Activating transcription factor 4 mediates the ISR and is highly expressed in HSCs due to scarcity of the eIF2 translation initiation complex. Primitive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells also displayed eIF2 scarcity and ISR activity marked leukemia stem cells in primary AML samples. [Cell Rep]
Using acquired gemcitabine resistant pancreatic cell lines, scientists revealed an important role of the GLI-SOX2 signaling axis for regulation of gemcitabine sensitivity in vitro and in animal models. Down-regulation of GLI transcriptional factors, but not SMO signaling inhibition, reduces tumor sphere formation, a characteristics of tumor initiating cell. [Oncogene]
The authors showed that osteopontin (OPN) is highly expressed and secreted in activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) driven by hypoxia, and this process is in a ROS‐dependent manner; in addition, OPN was shown to be involved in the PSC‐induced epithelial‐mesenchymal transition and CSC‐like properties of pancreatic cancer cells. [Mol Oncol]
Treatment of spheroid-forming liver CSCs with oxytetracycline effectively decreased the spheroid formation and the CD133+ cell population. Oxytetracycline could suppress expression of CD133 without changing of expression of other stem cell-related markers. [Sci Rep]
Lurbinectedin downregulated stem cell-related gene expression, inhibited HDAC1 activity, and effectively eliminated ALDH-high CSCs. [Invest New Drugs]
To investigate the biological effect of adding exogenous soluble CR-1 to the CSCs, scientists prepared a C-terminally truncated soluble form of recombinant human CR-1 protein, in which the glycophosphatidylinositol anchored moiety was removed by substitution of a stop codon through site-directed mutagenesis. [Int J Mol Sci]
Selective over expression of miR-21 and miR-155 and downregulation of miR-34a were demonstrated by HPV+ve CSCs which overexpress HPV16 oncogene E6 that is responsible for the maintenance of stemness. [PLoS One]
The authors address the issue of the identity of cancer-initiating cells and the presence of CSCs in growing tumors. They ask are there rare and distinct populations of CSCs in established tumor cell lines, or are all of the cells CSCs? [Leukemia]
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Rush University Medical Center has received a $5 million donation from Chicago philanthropists Robert and Emily King that will accelerate blood cancer immunotherapy research and the development of new treatment options. [Rush University Medical Center]
Medicenna Therapeutics Corp. announced promising interim efficacy and safety results from patients treated at low doses in the on-going Phase IIb clinical trial of MDNA55 in recurrent glioblastoma. [Medicenna Therapeutics Corp.]
AIVITA Biomedical, Inc. announced the enrollment of its first patient in the company’s Phase II clinical trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. [AIVITA Biomedical, Inc.]
The first large-scale analysis of compliance with open-access rules reveals that up to one-third of articles are not free to read, report Vincent Larivière and Cassidy R. Sugimoto. [Nature News]
Australia’s government is set to introduce a ‘national-interest test’ for research projects seeking grant funding from next year. The policy will require that researchers outline how their project will advance the country’s interests, said education minister Dan Tehan in a statement. [Nature News]
Unpaid research stints are the norm for scientists in sub-Saharan Africa, according to an online survey of 412 academics that spanned six countries. Eighty-five per cent of respondents report having had research positions with no pay. Of those, 33% had spent between one and five years doing research for free, and 4% had spent more than five years doing so. [Nature News]
Last April, Eszti Varga was one of 2,400 young women to converge on 120 universities and companies across Hungary as part of Girls’ Day, a campaign aimed at drawing high-school students into science and technology careers. Sponsored by the Association of Hungarian Women in Science, the campaign has attracted some 10,000 participants across the seven years that it has run. [Nature News]
NEW Developmental, Metabolic and (Epi)Genomic Mechanisms Driving Organogenesis and Tumorigenesis
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