|Cancer Stem Cell News 8.14 April 17, 2019|
Researchers identified distinct transitional intermediate states and their divergent developmental trajectories in astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages. Moreover, intersectional analysis uncovered analogous intermediate progenitors during brain tumorigenesis, wherein oligodendrocyte-progenitor intermediates were abundant, hyper-proliferative, and progressively reprogrammed toward a stem-like state susceptible to further malignant transformation. [Cell Stem Cell]
Scientists report that the paradoxical requirement for the simultaneous induction of both mesenchymal-epithelial transition and cancer stem cell traits in disseminated tumor cells was provided by bone vascular niche E-selectin, whose direct binding to cancer cells promoted bone metastasis by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition and activating Wnt signaling. [Nat Cell Biol]
Investigators showed that phenotypic heterogeneity arose from non-hierarchical, reversible state transitions, instructed by the microenvironment and was predictable by mathematical modeling. Although functional stem cell properties were similar in vitro, accelerated reconstitution of heterogeneity provided a growth advantage in vivo, suggesting that tumorigenic potential was linked to intrinsic plasticity rather than CSC multipotency. [Nat Commun]
Using CRISPR-Cas9 approaches in patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) to interrogate function of the coding genome, the authors identified actionable pathways responsible for growth, which revealed the gene-essential circuitry of GBM stemness and proliferation. In particular, they characterized members of the SOX transcription factor family, SOCS3, USP8, and DOT1L, and protein ufmylation as important for GSC growth. [Cell Rep]
The effect of exosomes isolated from CSCs of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) patients on the progress of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung metastasis of CCRCC cells were examined. CSC exosomes promoted proliferation of CCRCC cells and accelerated the progress of EMT. Bioactive miR-19b-3p transmitted to cancer cells by CSC exosomes induced EMT via repressing the expression of PTEN. [Mol Cancer]
Researchers established a method to identify and isolate CSCs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using fluorescence-activated cell sorting with combined surface biomarkers including CD71, CD271, and CD338. CD71−/CD271+/CD338+ subpopulation cells possessed more stem cell properties in proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, metastasis, drug resistance, and tumorigenesis. [Cancers]
Investigators discovered a new class of small molecule anticancer agents that had no effect on tubulin but instead killed selected cancer cell lines by harnessing reactive oxygen species to induce ferroptosis. Interestingly, they found that drug sensitivity was highest in tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype. [Sci Rep]
Two human larynx squamous carcinoma cell lines with different radio sensitivities were cultured. Interestingly, CSC-like phenotypes were much more enriched in Hep-2R cells. The authors found that DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5 (DGCR5) was upregulated and microRNA-506 (miR-506) was downregulated in Hep-2R cells. [J Cell Physiol]
Researchers utilized in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo breast cancer models using ER+ MCF-7 and ER- MDA-MB-231 cells, as well as solid and metastatic breast cancer patient samples, to interrogate the effects of FKBPL and its peptide therapeutics on metastasis, endocrine therapy resistant CSCs and DLL4 and Notch4 expression. [BMC Cancer]
Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common human cancers, is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes, prognoses, and responses to treatment. Understanding the pathogenesis of GC at the molecular level is important for prognosis prediction and determining treatments. [Int J Clin Oncol]
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Tetra Bio-Pharma Inc. announced that it has entered into a collaboration agreement with Ovensa Inc. to evaluate TRIOZAN™, a proprietary nanomedicine platform for targeted delivery of cannabinoids to brain tumor cells. [Tetra Bio-Pharma, Inc.]
Innovation Pharmaceuticals reported recent that academic and pre-clinical research further supports the therapeutic potential of Kevetrin, the company’s p53 drug candidate, in leukemias and in combination with cancer immunotherapies. [Innovation Pharmaceuticals]
Peer reviewers are four times more likely to give a grant application an “excellent” or “outstanding” score rather than a “poor” or “good” one when they are chosen by the grant’s applicants, an analysis of Swiss funding applications has found. [Nature News]
Researchers in India will soon have their own preprint repository where they can post manuscripts from any discipline. The founders of IndiaRxiv hope it will improve the quality of science in the country. [Nature News]
Stanford University cleared three faculty members of any misconduct in their interactions with the Chinese scientist who created “CRISPR babies” last year. [STAT News]
NEW 2nd Arab African International Cancer Congress (AAICC)
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