|Cancer Stem Cell News 8.21 June 5, 2019|
Scientists used bioinformatics analysis of public databases and RT-qPCR to quantitate the relative gene expression profiles of ovarian tumors. Many of the dysregulated genes were CSC factors, and they analyzed its relation to therapeutic resistance in human primary tumors. They also performed clustering and in vitro analyses of therapy cytotoxicity in tumorspheres. [J Exp Clin Cancer Res]
Investigators cultured three primary human brain cancer cell lines under three different culture conditions that maintained low, medium, and high hairy and enhancer of split 3 (HES3) expression and characterized gene regulation and mechanical phenotype in these states. They assessed gene expression regulation following HES3 knockdown in the HES3-high conditions. [FASEB J]
Using spheroids as an in vitro model for CSCs, scientists evaluated their role in primary malignant cells (PMCs) in ascites from previously untreated patients with high-grade serous adenocarcinoma of ovary and cell lines. Spheroids from PMCs grown under specific conditions showed significantly higher expression of endothelial, pericyte and lymphatic endothelial markers. [Angiogenesis]
The authors showed that the peptide entered in brain tumor-initiating cells and demonstrated an anti-tumor effect by inhibiting their proliferation and inducing their death through an alteration of their microtubule network and cell-cell adhesion, and a decrease in the self-renewal ability of these cancer stem cells. [Int J Pharm]
Compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines, where 4,4′-(4,4’‐(1,3-phenylene)bis(1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,1-diyl))bis(1-methylquinolin-1-ium) (1d) showed the greater activity. Importantly, dose-response curves showed that 1d was cytotoxic in the human colon cancer HT-29 cell line enriched in cancer stem-like cells, a subpopulation of cells implicated in chemo-resistance. [ChemMedChem]
Investigators showed that bispecific antibody-5 (BsAb-5) could inhibit hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mediated tumor development, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, serving as an inhibitory cellular mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition factor (c-MET) antibody. Mechanisms responsible for BsAb-5 in CD166+ lung CSCs included inducing c-MET degradation and inhibition of HGF-stimulated c-MET-Notch pathway. [Biosci Rep]
CD146 knockdown in glioma stem cells (GSCs) significantly compromised cell growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed that most of the CD146 and CD133 double-positive cells were in the G2/M phase. Ectopic expression of CD146 in parental glioma cells resulted in cell cycle arrest of most differentiated cells in G0/G1 phase. In contrast, ectopic expression of CD146 in GSCs resulted in an increase in the number of CD133-positive cells in the G2/M phase. [J Neurooncol]
The authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing on a chromosomally unstable glioblastoma CSC line and a control normal, diploid neural stem cell line to investigate the impact of copy number variation due to chromosomal instability on gene expression. [BMC Med Genomics]
A number of cancer testis antigens can induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and promote CSC characteristics. Investigators analyzed the correlation between NY-ESO1 and TWIST1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as their impact on the EMT process. [Biochimie]
Scientists describe that semaphorin7A is exposed on glioma-associated stem cell-exosomes’ surface and signals to glioma stem cells (GSCs) through integrin β1. This interaction activated focal adhesion kinase into GSC and increased their motility, in a patient-based in vitro model. [Cells]
Investigators provide a broad picture on the physiological role of p63, in maintaining the basal epithelial identity, as well as its involvement in breast cancer progression, emphasizing its relevance in tumor cell invasion and stemness. [Int J Mol Sci]
The authors summarize the current knowledge on environmental stress factors and how they affect the metabolism of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), with a special focus on miRNA- and hypoxia-induced effects on colon TICs. [Cells]
Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
The presentation by Dr. Dina Randazzo of Duke University School of Medicine and a Principal Investigator in the Phase IIb clinical trial MDNA55-05, which recently completed its enrollment, focused on the development of a new biomarker test for the interleukin-4 (IL4) receptor that may enable better selection and superior treatment outcomes for patients with recurrent glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and uniformly fatal form of brain cancer. [Press release from Medicenna Therapeutics Corp. discussing research presented at the 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago]
Adastra Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced interim data from a Phase Ib trial of the company’s lead clinical candidate, zotiraciclib, in combination with temozolomide for the treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas. [Press release from Adastra Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC.) discussing research presented at the 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago]
Ziopharm Oncology, Inc. announced the presentation of new interim analyses of clinical data from two ongoing substudies in its Controlled IL-12 platform, or Ad-RTS-hIL-12 plus veledimex, both as monotherapy and in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor, for the treatment of recurrent or progressive glioblastoma multiforme in adults. [Press release from Ziopharm Oncology, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago]
VBL Therapeutics announced that MRI data from VB-111 Phase II and Phase III studies in recurrent GBM, presented, showed a survival benefit associated with objective responses to the compound and a distinct signature of VB-111 activity. [Press release from VBL Therapeutics discussing research presented at the 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago]
Origenis GmbH announced that the company has entered into a collaboration with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, targeting glioblastoma, a rare but fatal brain cancer. Under the research and collaboration agreement, Origenis will use its proprietary AI platform for drug discovery and development. [Origenis GmbH]
BioTheryX, Inc. announced that the FDA has cleared BioTheryX’s Investigational New Drug (IND) application for BTX-A51, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. [BioTheryX, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)]
Astellas Pharma Inc. announced that the FDA approved a supplemental New Drug Application to update the US product labeling for XOSPATA® to include final analysis data from the ADMIRAL trial. The data demonstrated improvement in Overall Survival in those treated with gilteritinib monotherapy versus salvage chemotherapy in adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia with an FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutation. [Astellas Pharma Inc.]
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has referred 16 allegations related to foreign influence of US-funded research to investigators and contacted 61 research institutions about such concerns, federal health officials said at a hearing. [STAT News]
Thousands of scientists and their supporters marched through the streets of Budapest on 2 June to protest against a proposed law that would give the Hungarian government direct control of the country’s top research institutes. [Nature News]
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