MAdCAM-1 Costimulation in the Presence of Retinoic Acid and TGF-β Promotes HIV Infection and Differentiation of CD4+ T Cells Into CCR5+ TRM -Like Cells

Among the costimulatory ligands the authors evaluated, MAdCAM-1 was unique in its capacity to upregulate both CCR5 and CCR9. MAdCAM-1 costimulation rendered cells susceptible to HIV infection.
[PLOS Pathogens]
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