Proteomics Analysis of Human Intestinal Organoids during Hypoxia and Reoxygenation as a Model to Study Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Investigators demonstrated the use of human small intestinal organoids to model ischemia-reperfusion injury by exposing organoids to hypoxia and reoxygenation.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Kip, A. M., Soons, Z., Mohren, R., Duivenvoorden, A. A. M., Röth, A. A. J., Cillero-Pastor, B., Neumann, U. P., Dejong, C. H. C., Heeren, R. M. A., Olde Damink, S. W. M., & Lenaerts, K. (2021). Proteomics analysis of human intestinal organoids during hypoxia and reoxygenation as a model to study ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03379-9 Cite
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A CRISPR/Cas9-Engineered ARID1A-Deficient Human Gastric Cancer Organoid Model Reveals Essential and Non-Essential Modes of Oncogenic Transformation

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ARID1A knockout in primary TP53-/- human gastric organoids induced morphologic dysplasia, tumorigenicity and mucinous differentiation.
[Cancer Discovery]
Lo, Y.-H., Kolahi, K. S., Du, Y., Chang, C.-Y., Krokhotin, A., Nair, A., Sobba, W. D., Karlsson, K., Jones, S. J., Longacre, T. A., Mah, A. T., Tercan, B., Sockell, A., Xu, H., Seoane, J. A., Chen, J., Shmulevich, I., Weissman, J. S., Curtis, C., … Kuo, C. J. (2021). A CRISPR/Cas9-engineered ARID1A-deficient human gastric cancer organoid model reveals essential and non-essential modes of oncogenic transformation. Cancer Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1109 Cite
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Integrated, Automated Maintenance, Expansion and Differentiation of 2D and 3D Patient-Derived Cellular Models for High Throughput Drug Screening

Scientists provided automated protocols for neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in 2D culture and 3D midbrain organoids for high throughput screenings.
[Scientific Reports]
Boussaad, I., Cruciani, G., Bolognin, S., Antony, P., Dording, C. M., Kwon, Y.-J., Heutink, P., Fava, E., Schwamborn, J. C., & Krüger, R. (2021). Integrated, automated maintenance, expansion and differentiation of 2D and 3D patient-derived cellular models for high throughput drug screening. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1439. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81129-3 Cite
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IGFBPs Mediate IGF-1’s Functions in Retinal Lamination and Photoreceptor Development during Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation to Retinal Organoids

Researchers investigated the expression of insulin growth factor binding proteins and their role in the generation of human retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells.
[Stem Cells]
IGFBPs mediate IGF‐1’s functions in retinal lamination and photoreceptor development during pluripotent stem cell differentiation to retinal organoids - Zerti - - STEM CELLS - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://stemcellsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/stem.3331?af=R Cite
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Serine Synthesis Pathway Inhibition Cooperates With Dietary Serine and Glycine Limitation for Cancer Therapy

Scientists showed that inhibition of PHGDH, the first step in the serine synthesis pathway, cooperated with serine and glycine depletion to inhibit one-carbon metabolism and cancer growth.
[Nature Communications]
Tajan, M., Hennequart, M., Cheung, E. C., Zani, F., Hock, A. K., Legrave, N., Maddocks, O. D. K., Ridgway, R. A., Athineos, D., Suárez-Bonnet, A., Ludwig, R. L., Novellasdemunt, L., Angelis, N., Li, V. S. W., Vlachogiannis, G., Valeri, N., Mainolfi, N., Suri, V., Friedman, A., … Vousden, K. H. (2021). Serine synthesis pathway inhibition cooperates with dietary serine and glycine limitation for cancer therapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 366. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20223-y Cite
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Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Photothermal Ablation of Colorectal Cancer Organoids

Tumor organoid technology was used to evaluate the ablative potential of CD44-targeted polymer nanoparticles using hyaluronic acid (HA) as the targeting agent and coating it onto hybrid donor acceptor polymer particles (HDAPPs) to form HA-HDAPPs.
[Scientific Reports]
McCarthy, B., Cudykier, A., Singh, R., Levi-Polyachenko, N., & Soker, S. (2021). Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for photothermal ablation of colorectal cancer organoids. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1532. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81122-w Cite
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An Alternative Approach To Produce Versatile Retinal Organoids with Accelerated Ganglion Cell Development

Scientists describe and characterized a protocol focused on the generation of retinal ganglion cells within an accelerated four week timeframe without any external small molecules or growth factors.
[Scientific Reports]
Wagstaff, P. E., ten Asbroek, A. L. M. A., ten Brink, J. B., Jansonius, N. M., & Bergen, A. A. B. (2021). An alternative approach to produce versatile retinal organoids with accelerated ganglion cell development. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1101. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79651-x Cite
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Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in Human and Mouse Brain

Scientists used three independent approaches to probe the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the brain. Using human brain organoids, they observed clear evidence of infection with accompanying metabolic changes in infected and neighboring neurons.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Song, E., Zhang, C., Israelow, B., Lu-Culligan, A., Prado, A. V., Skriabine, S., Lu, P., Weizman, O.-E., Liu, F., Dai, Y., Szigeti-Buck, K., Yasumoto, Y., Wang, G., Castaldi, C., Heltke, J., Ng, E., Wheeler, J., Alfajaro, M. M., Levavasseur, E., … Iwasaki, A. (2021). Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20202135). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202135 Cite
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Experimental Models to Study COVID-19 Effect in Stem Cells

The authors discuss ex vivo experimental models available to study the effect of COVID-19 on tissue stem cells.
[Cells]
Bobba, C. M., Fei, Q., Shukla, V., Lee, H., Patel, P., Putman, R. K., Spitzer, C., Tsai, M., Wewers, M. D., Lee, R. J., Christman, J. W., Ballinger, M. N., Ghadiali, S. N., & Englert, J. A. (2021). Nanoparticle delivery of microRNA-146a regulates mechanotransduction in lung macrophages and mitigates injury during mechanical ventilation. Nature Communications, 12(1), 289. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20449-w Cite
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A Logical Network-Based Drug-Screening Platform for Alzheimer’s Disease Representing Pathological Features of Human Brain Organoids

The authors report an efficient, network-based drug-screening platform developed by integrating mathematical modeling and the pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cerebral organoids, including CRISPR-Cas9-edited isogenic lines.
[Nature Communications]
Park, J.-C., Jang, S.-Y., Lee, D., Lee, J., Kang, U., Chang, H., Kim, H. J., Han, S.-H., Seo, J., Choi, M., Lee, D. Y., Byun, M. S., Yi, D., Cho, K.-H., & Mook-Jung, I. (2021). A logical network-based drug-screening platform for Alzheimer’s disease representing pathological features of human brain organoids. Nature Communications, 12(1), 280. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20440-5 Cite
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Endothelial Cells Control Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Cholesterol Levels by Regulating 24-Dehydrocholesterol Reductase Expression

The authors investigated changes of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) transcriptome by utilizing 3D human vascular organoids organized as a core of VSMCs enclosed by a monolayer of endothelial cells.
[Experimental Cell Research]
Kohlhaas, J., Jäger, M., Lust, L., De La Torre, C., Hecker, M., & Korff, T. (2021). Endothelial cells control vascular smooth muscle cell cholesterol levels by regulating 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase expression. Experimental Cell Research, 112446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112446 Cite
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