Patient-Derived Organoids and High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: From Disease Modeling to Personalized Medicine

Scientists discuss recent studies that have characterized the translational potential of patient’s derived organoids to inform on drug sensitivity of high grade serous ovarian cancer patients.
[Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research]
Nero, C., Vizzielli, G., Lorusso, D., Cesari, E., Daniele, G., Loverro, M., Scambia, G., & Sette, C. (2021). Patient-derived organoids and high grade serous ovarian cancer: from disease modeling to personalized medicine. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 40(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01917-7 Cite
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Schlafen 11 Predicts Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Gastric Cancers

Scientists investigated the potential clinical utility of SLFN11 in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). In GC cells and organoids, long-term treatment with oxaliplatin suppressed SLFN11 expression while imparting drug resistance.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Takashima, T., Taniyama, D., Sakamoto, N., Yasumoto, M., Asai, R., Hattori, T., Honma, R., Thang, P. Q., Ukai, S., Maruyama, R., Harada, K., Kuraoka, K., Tanabe, K., Sasaki, A. T., Ohdan, H., Morii, E., Murai, J., & Yasui, W. (2021). Schlafen 11 predicts response to platinum-based chemotherapy in gastric cancers. British Journal of Cancer, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01364-3 Cite
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Emc3 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis by Preserving Secretory Lineages

Mitigating ER stress with tauroursodeoxycholate acid alleviates secretory dysfunction and restores organoid formation.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Huang, M., Yang, L., Jiang, N., Dai, Q., Li, R., Zhou, Z., Zhao, B., & Lin, X. (2021). Emc3 maintains intestinal homeostasis by preserving secretory lineages. Mucosal Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00399-2 Cite
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Reprogramming of the FOXA1 Cistrome in Treatment-Emergent Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer

Researchers established the importance of FOXA1 in NEPC and provide a principled approach to identifying cancer dependencies through epigenomic profiling.
[Nature Communications]
Baca, S. C., Takeda, D. Y., Seo, J.-H., Hwang, J., Ku, S. Y., Arafeh, R., Arnoff, T., Agarwal, S., Bell, C., O’Connor, E., Qiu, X., Alaiwi, S. A., Corona, R. I., Fonseca, M. A. S., Giambartolomei, C., Cejas, P., Lim, K., He, M., Sheahan, A., … Freedman, M. L. (2021). Reprogramming of the FOXA1 cistrome in treatment-emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1979. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22139-7 Cite
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Lung Organoid Simulations for Modelling and Predicting the Effect of Mutations on SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity

Researchers suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection could be simulated in human alveolar type lung cells.
[Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal]
Esmail, S., & Danter, W. R. (2021). Lung organoid simulations for modelling and predicting the effect of mutations on SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.03.020 Cite
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Three-Dimensional Macroporous Sponge for the Culture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Organoids

Investigators focused on the culture of cells harvested from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) as organoids using a cellulosic macroporous sponge scaffold
[SLAS TECHNOLOGY]
Toh, T. B., Liu, Z., Yu, H., & Fong, E. L. S. (2021). Three-Dimensional Macroporous Sponge for the Culture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Organoids. SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation, 24726303211000684. https://doi.org/10.1177/24726303211000685 Cite
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Heart Organoids and Tissue Models for Modeling Development and Disease

The authors evaluated recent cardiac organoid studies through the lens of the core principles of organoid technology: patterned self-organization of multiple cell types resembling the in vivo organ.
[Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology]
Miyamoto, M., Nam, L., Kannan, S., & Kwon, C. (2021). Heart organoids and tissue models for modeling development and disease. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.03.011 Cite
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Modeling Colorectal Cancers Using Multidimensional Organoids

Scientists specifically address how colon-derived organoids can be perfected as multidimensional, scalable, reproducible models of healthy, pre-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions of the colon.
[Advances in Cancer Research]
Sayed, I. M., El-Hafeez, A. A. A., Maity, P. P., Das, S., & Ghosh, P. (2021). Modeling colorectal cancers using multidimensional organoids. In Advances in Cancer Research. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2021.02.005 Cite
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Colon Epithelial Cell TGFβ Signaling Modulates the Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Barrier Function in Mice

In vitro colon organoid culture was utilized to assess junction-related gene expression by qPCR and trans-epithelial resistance. In silico analyses of human inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer databases were performed.
[American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology]
Marincola Smith, P., Choksi, Y. A., Markham, N. O., Hanna, D. N., Zi, J., Weaver, C. J., Hamaamen, J. A., Lewis, K. B., Yang, J., Liu, Q., Kaji, I., Means, A. L., & Beauchamp, R. D. (2021). Colon epithelial cell TGFβ signaling modulates the expression of tight junction proteins and barrier function in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00053.2021 Cite
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Proteasome Stress in Skeletal Muscle Mounts a Long-Range Protective Response That Delays Retinal and Brain Aging

Maltose preserved proteostasis and neuronal activity in human brain organoids challenged by thermal stress.
[Cell Metabolism]
Rai, M., Coleman, Z., Curley, M., Nityanandam, A., Platt, A., Robles-Murguia, M., Jiao, J., Finkelstein, D., Wang, Y.-D., Xu, B., Fan, Y., & Demontis, F. (2021). Proteasome stress in skeletal muscle mounts a long-range protective response that delays retinal and brain aging. Cell Metabolism, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.005 Cite
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Suppression of Elevated Cdc42 Activity Promotes the Regenerative Potential of Aged Intestinal Stem Cells

Elevation of Cdc42 activity in young animals by genetic means causes premature ISC aging, whereas pharmacological suppression of elevated Cdc42 activity restores organoid formation potential in vitro.
[iScience]
Nalapareddy, K., Hassan, A., Sampson, L., Zheng, Y., & Geiger, H. (2021). Suppression of elevated Cdc42 activity promotes the regenerative potential of aged intestinal stem cells. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102362 Cite
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