Single-Cell Derived Tumor Organoids Display Diversity in HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

The authors investigated the variability in HLA class I peptide presentation between different clonal cells of the same colorectal cancer patient, using an organoid system.
[Nature Communications]
Demmers, L. C., Kretzschmar, K., Van Hoeck, A., Bar-Epraïm, Y. E., van den Toorn, H. W. P., Koomen, M., van Son, G., van Gorp, J., Pronk, A., Smakman, N., Cuppen, E., Clevers, H., Heck, A. J. R., & Wu, W. (2020). Single-cell derived tumor organoids display diversity in HLA class I peptide presentation. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5338. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19142-9 Cite
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Anti-GD2-IRDye800CW as a Targeted Probe for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery in Neuroblastoma

Scientists implemented a xenograft model of patient-derived neuroblastoma organoids with differential GD2 expression and showed that even low GD2 expressing tumors still provided an adequate real-time fluorescence signal.
[Scientific Reports]
Wellens, L. M., Deken, M. M., Sier, C. F. M., Johnson, H. R., de la Jara Ortiz, F., Bhairosingh, S. S., Houvast, R. D., Kholosy, W. M., Baart, V. M., Pieters, A. M. M. J., de Krijger, R. R., Molenaar, J. J., Wehrens, E. J., Dekkers, J. F., Wijnen, M. H. W. A., Vahrmeijer, A. L., & Rios, A. C. (2020). Anti-GD2-IRDye800CW as a targeted probe for fluorescence-guided surgery in neuroblastoma. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17667. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74464-4 Cite
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Automated Microfluidic Platform for Dynamic and Combinatorial Drug Screening of Tumor Organoids

Scientists present an automated, high-throughput, microfluidic 3D organoid culture and analysis system to facilitate preclinical research and personalized therapies. They validated the system by performing individual, combinatorial, and sequential drug screens on human-derived pancreatic tumor organoids.
[Nature Communications]
Schuster, B., Junkin, M., Kashaf, S. S., Romero-Calvo, I., Kirby, K., Matthews, J., Weber, C. R., Rzhetsky, A., White, K. P., & Tay, S. (2020). Automated microfluidic platform for dynamic and combinatorial drug screening of tumor organoids. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19058-4 Cite
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IL-22 Receptor Signaling in Paneth Cells Is Critical for Their Maturation, Microbiota Colonization, Th17-Related Immune Responses, and Anti-Salmonella Immunity

Using novel Paneth cell-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout mice, researchers showed that IL-22 signaling in Paneth cells was required for small intestinal host defense. They showed that Paneth cell maturation, antimicrobial effector function, expression of specific WNTs, and organoid morphogenesis were dependent on cell-intrinsic IL-22Ra1 signaling.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Gaudino, S. J., Beaupre, M., Lin, X., Joshi, P., Rathi, S., McLaughlin, P. A., Kempen, C., Mehta, N., Eskiocak, O., Yueh, B., Blumberg, R. S., van der Velden, A. W. M., Shroyer, K. R., Bialkowska, A. B., Beyaz, S., & Kumar, P. (2020). IL-22 receptor signaling in Paneth cells is critical for their maturation, microbiota colonization, Th17-related immune responses, and anti- Salmonella immunity. Mucosal Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00348-5 Cite
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Evaluation of the RAS Signaling Network in Response to MEK Inhibition Using Organoids Derived from a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patient

Scientists used patient-derived organoids derived from a familial adenomatous polyposis patient to analyze the response to chemotherapeutic agents targeting EGFR, BRAF and MEK.
[Scientific Reports]
Osumi, H., Muroi, A., Sakahara, M., Kawachi, H., Okamoto, T., Natsume, Y., Yamanaka, H., Takano, H., Kusama, D., Shinozaki, E., Ooki, A., Yamaguchi, K., Ueno, M., Takeuchi, K., Noda, T., Nagayama, S., Koshikawa, N., & Yao, R. (2020). Evaluation of the RAS signaling network in response to MEK inhibition using organoids derived from a familial adenomatous polyposis patient. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17455. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74530-x Cite
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Potential Ethical Problems with Human Cerebral Organoids: Consciousness and Moral Status of Future Brains in a Dish

The author discusses the conditions under which human cerebral organoids could require the acknowledgment of their own moral status.
[Brain Research]
Lavazza, A. (2020). Potential Ethical Problems with Human Cerebral Organoids: Consciousness and Moral Status of Future Brains in a Dish. Brain Research, 147146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147146 Cite
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A Materials-Science Perspective on Tackling COVID-19

The authors investigate future possibilities of materials science in antiviral research and treatment development, examining the role of materials in antiviral-drug design, including the importance of synthetic material platforms for organoids and organs-on-a-chip, in drug delivery and vaccination, and for the production of medical equipment.
[Nature Reviews Materials]
Tang, Z., Kong, N., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Hu, P., Mou, S., Liljeström, P., Shi, J., Tan, W., Kim, J. S., Cao, Y., Langer, R., Leong, K. W., Farokhzad, O. C., & Tao, W. (2020). A materials-science perspective on tackling COVID-19. Nature Reviews Materials, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-020-00247-y Cite
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Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications

The authors verified the applicability of 3D organoids for in vitro investigation of intestinal biochemical processes related to transport and metabolism of nutrients and drugs.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Zietek, T., Giesbertz, P., Ewers, M., Reichart, F., Weinmüller, M., Urbauer, E., Haller, D., Demir, I. E., Ceyhan, G. O., Kessler, H., & Rath, E. (2020). Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.577656 Cite
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Generation and Initial Characterization of Novel Tumor Organoid Models to Study Human Pancreatic Cancer-Induced Cachexia

The authors established a pancreatic tumor organoid biobank from well‐phenotyped cachectic and non‐cachectic patients to enable identification of tumor‐derived factors driving cancer cachexia.
[Journal of Cachexia Sarcopenia and Muscle]
Vaes, R. D. W., Dijk, D. P. J. van, Welbers, T. T. J., Blok, M. J., Aberle, M. R., Heij, L., Boj, S. F., Damink, S. W. M. O., & Rensen, S. S. (n.d.). Generation and initial characterization of novel tumour organoid models to study human pancreatic cancer-induced cachexia. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12627 Cite
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Glucosylceramide Production Maintains Colon Integrity in Response to Bacteroides Fragilis Toxin-Induced Colon Epithelial Cell Signaling

Scientists showed that Bacteroides fragilis toxin increased levels of glucosylceramide, a vital intestinal sphingolipid, both in mice and in colon organoids generated from the distal colons of mice.
[FASEB Journal]
Patterson, L., Allen, J., Posey, I., Shaw, J. J. P., Costa‐Pinheiro, P., Walker, S. J., Gademsey, A., Wu, X., Wu, S., Zachos, N. C., Fox, T. E., Sears, C. L., & Kester, M. (n.d.). Glucosylceramide production maintains colon integrity in response to Bacteroides fragilis toxin-induced colon epithelial cell signaling. The FASEB Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001669R Cite
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Cellular Senescence Contributes to Radiation-Induced Hyposalivation by Affecting the Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche

Salivary gland-derived organoids showed increased expression of senescence markers and pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors after radiation exposure.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Peng, X., Wu, Y., Brouwer, U., van Vliet, T., Wang, B., Demaria, M., Barazzuol, L., & Coppes, R. P. (2020). Cellular senescence contributes to radiation-induced hyposalivation by affecting the stem/progenitor cell niche. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03074-9 Cite
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