Keep Current with the Latest in Cell Biology Research

Exuberant Fibroblast Activity Compromises Lung Function via ADAMTS4

The authors demonstrated that respiratory viral infection induces distinct fibroblast activation states, which they term extracellular matrix-synthesizing, damage-responsive and interferon-responsive states. They provide evidence that excess activity of damage-responsive lung fibroblasts drives lethal immunopathology during severe influenza virus infection.
[Nature]
Boyd, D. F., Allen, E. K., Randolph, A. G., Guo, X. J., Weng, Y., Sanders, C. J., Bajracharya, R., Lee, N. K., Guy, C. S., Vogel, P., Guan, W., Li, Y., Liu, X., Novak, T., Newhams, M. M., Fabrizio, T. P., Wohlgemuth, N., Mourani, P. M., Wight, T. N., … Thomas, P. G. (2020). Exuberant fibroblast activity compromises lung function via ADAMTS4. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2877-5 Cite
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The SARS-CoV-2 Targets by the PscRNA Profiling of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin Proteases

Scientists incorporated the protein information to analyze the expression of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, together with co-factors, TMPRSS2 and Furin, at single cell level in situ, which they called protein-proofed single-cell RNA (pscRNA) profiling.
[iScience]
Zhou, L., Niu, Z., Jiang, X., Zhang, Z., Zheng, Y., Wang, Z., Zhu, Y., Gao, L., Huang, H., Wang, X., & Sun, Q. (2020). The SARS-CoV-2 targets by the pscRNA profiling of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin proteases. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101744 Cite
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TET2-Loss-of-Function-Driven Clonal Hematopoiesis Exacerbates Experimental Insulin Resistance in Aging and Obesity

Scientists showed that inactivating mutations in the epigenetic regulator TET2, which led to clonal hematopoiesis, aggravate age- and obesity-related insulin resistance in mice.
[Cell Reports]
Fuster, J. J., Zuriaga, M. A., Zorita, V., MacLauchlan, S., Polackal, M. N., Viana-Huete, V., Ferrer-Pérez, A., Matesanz, N., Herrero-Cervera, A., Sano, S., Cooper, M. A., González-Navarro, H., & Walsh, K. (2020). TET2-Loss-of-Function-Driven Clonal Hematopoiesis Exacerbates Experimental Insulin Resistance in Aging and Obesity. Cell Reports, 33(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108326 Cite
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Single-Cell Mutation Analysis of Clonal Evolution in Myeloid Malignancies

To delineate the clonal framework of myeloid malignancies, scientists performed single-cell mutational profiling on 146 samples from 123 patients. They showed that acute myeloid leukemia is dominated by a small number of clones, which frequently harbor co-occurring mutations in epigenetic regulators.
[Nature]
Miles, L. A., Bowman, R. L., Merlinsky, T. R., Csete, I. S., Ooi, A. T., Durruthy-Durruthy, R., Bowman, M., Famulare, C., Patel, M. A., Mendez, P., Ainali, C., Demaree, B., Delley, C. L., Abate, A. R., Manivannan, M., Sahu, S., Goldberg, A. D., Bolton, K. L., Zehir, A., … Levine, R. L. (2020). Single-cell mutation analysis of clonal evolution in myeloid malignancies. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2864-x Cite
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Standardized Xeno- and Serum-Free Culture Platform Enables Large-Scale Expansion of High-Quality Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells from Perinatal and Adult Tissue Sources

The authors established a standardized culture platform using xeno- and serum-free commercial media for expansion of MSCs derived from umbilical cord, bone marrow and adipose-derived and examined their functional characteristics.
[Cytotherapy]
Hoang, V. T., Trinh, Q.-M., Phuong, D. T. M., Bui, H. T. H., Hang, L. M., Ngan, N. T. H., Anh, N. T. T., Nhi, P. Y., Nhung, T. T. H., Lien, H. T., Nguyen, T. D., Thanh, L. N., & Hoang, D. M. (2020). Standardized xeno- and serum-free culture platform enables large-scale expansion of high-quality mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from perinatal and adult tissue sources. Cytotherapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.09.004 Cite
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Optimal, Large-Scale Propagation of Mouse Mammary Tumor Organoids

Using time-lapse imaging of mouse mammary tumor organoids in 3D culture, researchers observed that outgrowth potential varied non-linearly with initial organoid size.
[Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia]
Wrenn, E. D., Moore, B. M., Greenwood, E., McBirney, M., & Cheung, K. J. (2020). Optimal, Large-Scale Propagation of Mouse Mammary Tumor Organoids. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10911-020-09464-1 Cite
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Modeling Early Stage Atherosclerosis in a Primary Human Vascular Microphysiological System

Perfusion of tissue-engineered blood vessels at a physiological shear stress with enzyme-modified low-density-lipoprotein with or without TNFα promotes monocyte accumulation, reduced vasoactivity, alters NO production, which led to endothelial cell activation, monocyte accumulation, foam cell formation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
[Nature Communications]
Zhang, X., Bishawi, M., Zhang, G., Prasad, V., Salmon, E., Breithaupt, J. J., Zhang, Q., & Truskey, G. A. (2020). Modeling early stage atherosclerosis in a primary human vascular microphysiological system. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5426. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19197-8 Cite
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Y-27632 Promotes the Healing of Corneal Endothelial Wounds Using Endothelial Progenitor Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood

Scientists investigated the proliferation of umbilical cord blood–derived endothelial progenitor cells and the differentiation efficiency toward corneal endothelial cell-like cells induced by rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and to determine the most effective strategy for repairing corneal endothelium injuries in rabbits.
[Cornea]
Zhang, W., Yu, F., Chen, J., Fu, Y., Shao, C., & Fan, X. (2020). Y-27632 Promotes the Healing of Corneal Endothelial Wounds Using Endothelial Progenitor Cells Derived From Umbilical Cord Blood. Cornea, Publish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002560 Cite
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Physicochemical Characterization and Self-Assembly of Human Amniotic Membrane and Umbilical Cord Collagen: A Comparative Study

Investigators extracted collagen from human amniotic membrane and umbilical cord, which are treated as medical waste and compared its physico-chemical properties.
[International Journal of Biological Macromolecules]
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Enhancing the Therapeutic Potential of CCL2-Overexpressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Acute Stroke

After C–C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)-overexpressing human umbilical cord-derived MSCs were intravenously transplanted with mannitol in rats with middle cerebral arterial occlusion, scientists compared the differences between four different treatment groups: mannitol + CCL2-overexpressing hUC-MSCs, mannitol + naïve hUC-MSCs, mannitol only, and control.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Lee, S., Kim, O. J., Lee, K. O., Jung, H., Oh, S.-H., & Kim, N. K. (2020). Enhancing the Therapeutic Potential of CCL2-Overexpressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Acute Stroke. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(20), 7795. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207795 Cite
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Enumerating Regulatory T Cells in Cryopreserved Umbilical Cord Blood Samples Using FOXP3 Methylation Specific Quantitative PC

To establish the most robust and efficient way to measure the Treg content of previously cryopreserved cord blood units, researchers compared the enumeration of Treg and CD3+ cells using flow cytometry and an epigenetic, DNA-based methodology.
[PLoS One]
Duggleby, R. C., Tsang, H. P., Strange, K., McWhinnie, A., Lamikanra, A. A., Roberts, D. J., Hernandez, D., Madrigal, J. A., & Danby, R. D. (2020). Enumerating regulatory T cells in cryopreserved umbilical cord blood samples using FOXP3 methylation specific quantitative PCR. PLOS ONE, 15(10), e0240190. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240190 Cite
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