Keep Current with the Latest in Cell Biology Research

Potential Antiviral Options against SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Investigators developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. They identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. They also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine.
[Viruses]
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CBASS Immunity Uses CARF-Related Effectors to Sense 3′–5′- and 2′–5′-Linked Cyclic Oligonucleotide Signals and Protect Bacteria from Phage Infection

Investigators discovered Enterobacter cloacae CD-NTase-associated protein 4 (Cap4) as a founding member of a diverse family of >2,000 bacterial receptors that responded to CD-NTase signals. Structures of Cap4 revealed a promiscuous DNA endonuclease domain activated through ligand-induced oligomerization.
[Cell]
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The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis

Investigators report that periodontal inflammation exacerbates gut inflammation in vivo. Periodontitis led to expansion of oral pathobionts, including Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, in the oral cavity.
[Cell]
The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis: Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)30681-4 Cite
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The Tumor Suppressor TMEM127 Is a Nedd4-Family E3 Ligase Adaptor Required by Salmonella SteD to Ubiquitinate and Degrade MHC Class II Molecules

Through a genome-wide mutant screen of human antigen-presenting cells, investigators showed that the NEDD4 family HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and a tumor-suppressing transmembrane protein of unknown biochemical function, TMEM127, were required for SteD-dependent ubiquitination of mature MHC class II.
[Cell Host & Microbe]
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FOXO1 Promotes HIV Latency by Suppressing ER Stress in T Cells

Researchers report that, in resting T cells, FOXO1 inhibition impaired autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating two associated transcription factors: activating transcription factor 4 and nuclear factor of activated T cells.
[Nature Microbiology]
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Metabolic Reprogramming by Zika Virus Provokes Inflammation in Human Placenta

Scientists showed, using large scale metabolomics, that ZIKV infection reprogrammed placental lipidome by impairing the lipogenesis pathways. ZIKV-induced metabolic alterations provided building blocks for lipid droplet biogenesis and intracellular membrane rearrangements to support viral replication.
[Nature Communications]
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Offer a Drug-Tolerant and Immune-Privileged Niche to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Investigators report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheltered Mybacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to help tolerate anti-TB drugs. MSCs readily took up Mtb and allowed unabated mycobacterial growth despite having a functional innate pathway of phagosome maturation.
[Nature Communications]
Mesenchymal stem cells offer a drug-tolerant and immune-privileged niche to Mycobacterium tuberculosis | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16877-3 Cite
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TLR7 Sensing by Neutrophils Is Critical for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Leishmania-infected Tlr7−/− mice developed a chronic unhealing lesion, despite Th1 cell differentiation, and scientists showed that Tlr7−/− neutrophils alone mediated this effect. Conversely, topical treatment with a TLR7 agonist early in infection induced smaller lesion development than in untreated mice.
[Cell Reports]
Regli, I. B., Passelli, K., Martínez-Salazar, B., Amore, J., Hurrell, B. P., Müller, A. J., & Tacchini-Cottier, F. (2020). TLR7 Sensing by Neutrophils Is Critical for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Cell Reports, 31(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107746 Cite
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Shedding of Brucella melitensis Happens through Milk Macrophages in the Murine Model of Infection

Pregnant Balb/cByJ mice were intraperitoneally infected with 105 CFU of the 16 M reference strain, a 16 M mCherry mutant or a human isolate. Milk was collected over the course of lactation, and subjected to culture and immunofluorescence assays.
[Scientific Reports]
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Protection of Layers and Breeders against Homologous or Heterologous HPAIv by Vaccines from Korean National Antigen Bank

Researchers evaluated the efficacy of the clade 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4c H5Nx vaccines from the Korean avian influenza national antigen bank for emergency preparedness for their potency and protective efficacy against lethal homologous and heterologous viruses in layer and breeder chickens practically.
[Scientific Reports]
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Downregulation of HLA-I by the Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Mc080 Impacts NK-Cell Recognition and Promotes CD8+ T-Cell Evasion

MC080, but not MC033, downregulated cell-surface expression of endogenous classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I and non-classical HLA-E by a transporter associated with antigen processing-independent mechanism.
[Journal of General Virology]
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