Role of PARP1-Mediated Autophagy in EGFR-TKI Resistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

The authors explored the role of PARP1-mediated autophagy in the progression of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. PARP1-mediated autophagy was evaluated in vitro by CCK-8 assay, clonogenic assay, immunofluorescence, and western blot in the HCC-827, H1975, and H1299 cells treated with icotinib, rapamycin, and AZD2281 alone or in combination.
[Scientific Reports]
Zhang, Z., Lian, X., Xie, W., Quan, J., Liao, M., Wu, Y., Yang, Z.-Z., & Wang, G. (2020). Role of PARP1-mediated autophagy in EGFR-TKI resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77908-z Cite
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Fruquintinib Inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 Axis of Choroidal Endothelial Cells and M1-Type Macrophages to Protect against Mouse Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

Investigators HMPL-013 inhibited VEGF/VEGFR2 binding in choroidal endothelial cells and macrophages, as well as macrophage M1 polarization. In vitro, noncontact coculture of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells and macrophages under hypoxia conditions was established.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Liu, X., Guo, A., Tu, Y., Li, W., Li, L., Liu, W., Ju, Y., Zhou, Y., Sang, A., & Zhu, M. (2020). Fruquintinib inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 axis of choroidal endothelial cells and M1-type macrophages to protect against mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Cell Death & Disease, 11(11), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03222-1 Cite
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Pancreatic β-Cell Regeneration through Downregulation of FoxO1 Pathway

Researchers evaluated the regenerative potential of the murine pancreas post-human telomerase reverse transcriptase mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSC) administration through the intrapancreatic and intravenous route. Both routes of hTERT-MSC transplantation increased the incorporation of BrdU by pancreatic β-cells compared to control.
[Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Khatri, R., Mazurek, S., Petry, S. F., & Linn, T. (2020). Mesenchymal stem cells promote pancreatic β-cell regeneration through downregulation of FoxO1 pathway. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 497. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02007-9 Cite
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Progression-Free Survival of Prostate Cancer Patients Is Prolonged with a Higher Regucalcin Expression in the Tumor Tissues: Overexpressed Regucalcin Suppresses the Growth and Bone Activity in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

Overexpression of regucalcin in bone metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU-145 cells suppressed colony formation and cell growth in vitro. Overexpressed regucalcin enhanced the levels of p53, Rb, and p21, and decreased the levels of Ras, PI3 kinase, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase, leading to suppression of cell growth.
[Translational Oncology]
Yamaguchi, M., Osuka, S., Murata, T., & Ramos, J. W. (2021). Progression-free survival of prostate cancer patients is prolonged with a higher regucalcin expression in the tumor tissues: Overexpressed regucalcin suppresses the growth and bone activity in human prostate cancer cells. Translational Oncology, 14(1), 100955. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100955 Cite
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Protein Disulfide Isomerase 4 Drives Docetaxel Resistance in Prostate Cancer

Investigators evaluated the potential effect of protein disulfide isomerase 4 on chemoresistance to docetaxel (DTX) in prostate cancer cells (DTX-resistant PC-3 cells and C4-2B cells) to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
[Chemotherapy]
Qian, S., Zhang, S., Wu, Y., Ding, Y., Shen, H., & Li, X. (2020). Protein Disulfide Isomerase 4 Drives Docetaxel Resistance in Prostate Cancer. Chemotherapy, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1159/000511505 Cite
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Recovery of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors Exposed to Hypoxic-Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury by Indirect Exposure to Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase Pathway

Cellular deregulation was assessed by measuring glutathione levels, basal calcium and intracellular calcium response under KCl stimulation, as well as the key parameters of proliferation, glial progenitor marker expression and migration.
[Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology]
Sowmithra, S., Jain, N. K., Bhonde, R., & Datta, I. (2020). Recovery of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors Exposed to Hypoxic-Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury by Indirect Exposure to Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase Pathway. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-01007-w Cite
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Microenvironmental Changes Induced by Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Ovarian Function in Ovariectomized Rats via Activation of the PI3K-FOXO3 Pathway

Blood and ovary tissue were collected and analyzed after various placenta -derived (PD)-MSC transplantation treatments in an ovariectomized rat model. Changes in the expression of folliculogenesis- and ovary regeneration-related genes induced by PD-MSC treatments were analyzed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and histological analysis.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Choi, J. H., Seok, J., Lim, S. M., Kim, T. H., & Kim, G. J. (2020). Microenvironmental changes induced by placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells restore ovarian function in ovariectomized rats via activation of the PI3K-FOXO3 pathway. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 486. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02002-0 Cite
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CDX2 Inhibits Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer by Modulation of Snail Expression and β-Catenin Stabilization via Transactivation of PTEN Expression

A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to reveal the role of caudal-related homoeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Yu, J., Li, S., Xu, Z., Guo, J., Li, X., Wu, Y., Zheng, J., & Sun, X. (2020). CDX2 inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer by modulation of Snail expression and β-catenin stabilisation via transactivation of PTEN expression. British Journal of Cancer, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01148-1 Cite
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Curcumin Represses mTORC1 Signaling in Caco-2 Cells by a Two-Sided Mechanism Involving the Loss of IRS-1 and Activation of AMPK

The authors investigated the molecular effects of physiologically attainable concentration of curcumin in the intestinal lumen on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in Caco-2 cells.
[Cellular Signalling]
Kaur, H., & Moreau, R. (2020). Curcumin represses mTORC1 signaling in Caco-2 cells by a two-sided mechanism involving the loss of IRS-1 and activation of AMPK. Cellular Signalling, 109842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109842 Cite
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Wisp1 Is a Circulating Factor That Stimulates Proliferation of Adult Mouse and Human Beta Cells

Scientists report the identification of CCN4/Wisp1 as a circulating factor more abundant in pre-weaning than in adult mice. They showed that Wisp1 promoted endogenous and transplanted adult beta cell proliferation in vivo.
[Nature Communications]
Fernandez-Ruiz, R., García-Alamán, A., Esteban, Y., Mir-Coll, J., Serra-Navarro, B., Fontcuberta-PiSunyer, M., Broca, C., Armanet, M., Wojtusciszyn, A., Kram, V., Young, M. F., Vidal, J., Gomis, R., & Gasa, R. (2020). Wisp1 is a circulating factor that stimulates proliferation of adult mouse and human beta cells. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5982. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19657-1 Cite
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Syndecan-3 Regulates MSC Adhesion, ERK and AKT Signaling In Vitro and Its Deletion Enhances MSC Efficacy in a Model of Inflammatory Arthritis In Vivo

MSCs isolated from bone marrow of wild type and Sdc3−/− mice were used to assess immunophenotype, differentiation, adhesion and migration properties and cell signaling pathways.
[Scientific Reports]
Jones, F. K., Stefan, A., Kay, A. G., Hyland, M., Morgan, R., Forsyth, N. R., Pisconti, A., & Kehoe, O. (2020). Syndecan-3 regulates MSC adhesion, ERK and AKT signalling in vitro and its deletion enhances MSC efficacy in a model of inflammatory arthritis in vivo. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20487. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77514-z Cite
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