PRDX1 Activates Autophagy via the PTEN-AKT Signaling Pathway to Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Spiral Ganglion Neuron Damage

Macroautophagy/autophagy plays a critical role in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) development, but the effect of autophagy on cisplatin-induced SGN injury is unclear. Scientists found that autophagic flux was activated in SGNs after cisplatin damage.
[Autophagy]
Liu, W., Xu, L., Wang, X., Zhang, D., Sun, G., Wang, M., Wang, M., Han, Y., Chai, R., & Wang, H. (2021). PRDX1 activates autophagy via the PTEN-AKT signaling pathway to protect against cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion neuron damage. Autophagy, 0(ja), null. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1905466 Cite
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CASC11 Promotes Aggressiveness of Prostate Cancer Cells through miR-145/IGF1R Axis

The authors explored the potential functions of CASC11 in association with miR-145 and IGF1R during the malignant progression of prostate cancer cells.
[Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases]
Capik, O., Sanli, F., Kurt, A., Ceylan, O., Suer, I., Kaya, M., Ittmann, M., & Karatas, O. F. (2021). CASC11 promotes aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells through miR-145/IGF1R axis. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00353-0 Cite
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SWATH-MS Proteomics of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 Pancreatic Cancer Cells Allows Identification of Drug Targets Alternative to MEK and PI3K Inhibition

Scientists compared PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells which are, respectively, resistant and sensitive to MEK- and PI3K-targeted therapy.
[Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications]
Aguilar-Valdés, A., Noriega, L. G., Tovar, A. R., Ibarra-Sánchez, M. de J., Sosa-Hernández, V. A., Maravillas-Montero, J. L., & Martínez-Aguilar, J. (2021). SWATH-MS proteomics of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells allows identification of drug targets alternative to MEK and PI3K inhibition. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 552, 23–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.018 Cite
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Dasatinib Stimulates Its Own Mechanism of Resistance by Activating a CRTC3/MITF/Bcl-2 Pathway in Melanoma with Mutant or Amplified C-Kit

Researchers showed that, dasatinib in melanoma stimulated its proper mechanism of resistance, independently of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway reactivation commonly associated to secondary c-Kit mutations, but through CRTC3/MITF/Bcl-2 pathway activation at clinically relevant doses.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
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Extracellular Vesicles from Human Airway Basal Cells Respond to Cigarette Smoke Extract and Affect Vascular Endothelial Cells

Researchers showed that exposure of endothelial cells to exosome-enriched airway basal cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) promoted the survival of these cells and that this effect also involved VEGFR2 activation and is, at least in part, mediated by VEGFA present in the EVs.
[Scientific Reports]
Saxena, A., Walters, M. S., Shieh, J.-H., Shen, L.-B., Gomi, K., Downey, R. J., Crystal, R. G., & Moore, M. A. S. (2021). Extracellular vesicles from human airway basal cells respond to cigarette smoke extract and affect vascular endothelial cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 6104. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85534-6 Cite
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CXCL8 Chemokine in Ulcerative Colitis

The authors analyzed the CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis related signaling pathways and ncRNAs in ulcerative colitis (UC), as well as recent advances in our understanding of the CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis inhibition as a therapeutic strategy against UC.
[Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy]
Zhu, Y., Yang, S., Zhao, N., Liu, C., Zhang, F., Guo, Y., & Liu, H. (2021). CXCL8 chemokine in ulcerative colitis. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 138, 111427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111427 Cite
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Transmembrane and Coiled-Coil Domain Family 3 (TMCC3) Regulates Breast Cancer Stem Cell and AKT Activation

Researchers demonstrated greater expression of TMCC3 in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) than non-BCSCs and higher expression of TMCC3 in metastatic lymph nodes and lungs than in primary tumor of breast cancer patient-derived xenograft.
[Oncogene]
Wang, Y.-H., Chan, Y.-T., Hung, T.-H., Hung, J.-T., Kuo, M.-W., Wang, S.-H., Huang, Y., Lin, Y.-J., Chen, S.-C., Yu, J.-C., Wu, J.-C., Yu, J., & Yu, A. L. (2021). Transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 3 (TMCC3) regulates breast cancer stem cell and AKT activation. Oncogene, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01729-1 Cite
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Resistance to Second-Generation Androgen Receptor Antagonists in Prostate Cancer

Ongoing research to establish predictive biomarkers for the treatment of tumors with resistance to second-generation androgen receptor antagonists led to the approval of the PARP inhibitors olaparib and rucaparib in pre-treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
[Nature Reviews Urology]
Schmidt, K. T., Huitema, A. D. R., Chau, C. H., & Figg, W. D. (2021). Resistance to second-generation androgen receptor antagonists in prostate cancer. Nature Reviews Urology, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41585-021-00438-4 Cite
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Pancreatic Cancer Induces Muscle Wasting by Promoting the Release of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Upregulated Factor

The authors analyzed the relation between pancreatic cancer-derived pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor and cancer cachexia in mice and its clinical significance.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Yoo, W., Choi, H., Son, Y. H., Lee, J., Jo, S., Jung, D., Kim, Y. J., Koh, S. S., Yang, Y. R., Kwon, E.-S., Lee, K.-P., Noh, K. H., Kim, K. W., Ko, Y., Jun, E., Kim, S. C., & Kim, S. (2021). Pancreatic cancer induces muscle wasting by promoting the release of pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00582-2 Cite
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The Effect of hsa-miR-451b Knockdown on Biological Functions of Gastric Cancer Stem-Like Cells

Gastric cancer stem-like cells were transfected by hsa-miR-451b inhibitor then researchers used real-time RT-PCR to evaluate its effect on the expression of hsa-miR-451b and two of its direct target genes, stemness markers such as KLF4, SOX2, CD44, OCT3/4 and NANOG genes.
[Biochemical Genetics]
Farahani, D. B., Akrami, H., Moradi, B., Mehdizadeh, K., & Fattahi, M. R. (2021). The Effect of hsa-miR-451b Knockdown on Biological Functions of Gastric Cancer Stem-Like Cells. Biochemical Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-021-10057-8 Cite
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Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Immunomodulate and Restore Actin Dynamics and Phagocytosis of LPS-Activated Microglia via PI3K/Akt/Rho GTPase Pathway

Researchers elucidated whether human umbilical cord-derived MSCs can exert immunomodulatory effect and change the phenotype of activated microglia.
[Cell Death Discovery]
Mukai, T., Di Martino, E., Tsuji, S., Blomgren, K., Nagamura-Inoue, T., & Ådén, U. (2021). Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells immunomodulate and restore actin dynamics and phagocytosis of LPS-activated microglia via PI3K/Akt/Rho GTPase pathway. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00436-w Cite
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