CTLA-4 Expression by B-1a B Cells Is Essential for Immune Tolerance

Researchers report that expression of this immune-regulator in mouse B-1a cells has a critical function in maintaining self-tolerance by regulating these early-developing B cells that express a repertoire enriched for auto-reactivity.
[Nature Communications]
Yang, Y., Li, X., Ma, Z., Wang, C., Yang, Q., Byrne-Steele, M., Hong, R., Min, Q., Zhou, G., Cheng, Y., Qin, G., Youngyunpipatkul, J. V., Wing, J. B., Sakaguchi, S., Toonstra, C., Wang, L.-X., Vilches-Moure, J. G., Wang, D., Snyder, M. P., … Herzenberg, L. A. (2021). CTLA-4 expression by B-1a B cells is essential for immune tolerance. Nature Communications, 12(1), 525. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20874-x Cite
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Large Remodeling of the Myc-Induced Cell Surface Proteome in B Cells and Prostate Cells Creates New Opportunities for Immunotherapy

To identify how MYC overexpression remodels the cell surface proteome in a cell autologous fashion and in different cell types, scientists investigated the impact of MYC overexpression on 800 surface proteins in three isogenic model cell lines either of B cell or prostate cell origin engineered to have high or low MYC levels.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Chen, W., Mou, K. Y., Solomon, P., Aggarwal, R., Leung, K. K., & Wells, J. A. (2021). Large remodeling of the Myc-induced cell surface proteome in B cells and prostate cells creates new opportunities for immunotherapy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(4). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018861118 Cite
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Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review

Scientists assessed the current literature detailing the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on epithelial cells. Marine-derived ω-3 PUFAs, eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, as well as plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid, are incorporated into intestinal epithelial cell membranes, prevent changes to epithelial permeability, inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and induce the production of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and docosanoids.
[Foods]
Durkin, L. A., Childs, C. E., & Calder, P. C. (2021). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Intestinal Epithelium—A Review. Foods, 10(1), 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010199 Cite
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A Bispecific Single Domain Antibody Boosts Autologous Vγ9Vδ2-T Cell Responses towards CD1d in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Scientists evaluated CD1d expression in a cohort of 78 untreated CLL patients and generated a CD1d-specific Vγ9Vδ2-T cell engager based on single-domain antibodies.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Weerdt, I. de, Lameris, R., Ruben, J. M., Boer, R. de, Kloosterman, J., King, L. A., Levin, M.-D., Parren, P. W. H. I., Gruijl, T. D. de, Kater, A. P., & Vliet, H. J. van der. (2021). A bispecific single domain antibody boosts autologous Vγ9Vδ2-T cell responses towards CD1d in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4576 Cite
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Enhanced SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization by Dimeric IgA

Scientists characterized the IgA response to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 149 convalescent individuals after diagnosis with COVID-19. IgA responses in plasma generally correlated with IgG responses.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Wang, Z., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Muecksch, F., Finkin, S., Viant, C., Gaebler, C., Cipolla, M., Hoffman, H.-H., Oliveira, T. Y., Oren, D. A., Ramos, V., Nogueira, L., Michailidis, E., Robbiani, D. F., Gazumyan, A., Rice, C. M., Hatziioannou, T., Bieniasz, P. D., Caskey, M., & Nussenzweig, M. C. (2021). Enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization by dimeric IgA. Science Translational Medicine, 13(577). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abf1555 Cite
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Overcoming the Challenges Associated with CD3+ T-Cell Redirection in Cancer

The authors discuss novel approaches to overcome the key challenges associated with CD3+ bispecific T-cell redirection in order to achieve an optimal balance of anti-tumour activity and safety.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Singh, A., Dees, S., & Grewal, I. S. (2021). Overcoming the challenges associated with CD3+ T-cell redirection in cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01225-5 Cite
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Histone Methyltransferase WHSC1 Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Apoptosis via Targeting Anti-Apoptotic BCL2

Scientists revealed how WHSC1 regulates tumorigenesis and chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer.
[Cell Death Discovery]
Wang, Y., Zhu, L., Guo, M., Sun, G., Zhou, K., Pang, W., Cao, D., Tang, X., & Meng, X. (2021). Histone methyltransferase WHSC1 inhibits colorectal cancer cell apoptosis via targeting anti-apoptotic BCL2. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00402-6 Cite
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Evolution of Antibody Immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Scientists report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection. They find that IgM, and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain antibody titres decrease significantly with IgA being less affected.
[Nature]
Gaebler, C., Wang, Z., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Muecksch, F., Finkin, S., Tokuyama, M., Cho, A., Jankovic, M., Schaefer-Babajew, D., Oliveira, T. Y., Cipolla, M., Viant, C., Barnes, C. O., Bram, Y., Breton, G., Hägglöf, T., Mendoza, P., Hurley, A., Turroja, M., … Nussenzweig, M. C. (2021). Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03207-w Cite
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Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

More studies reveal that CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutralizing antibodies all contribute to control of SARS-CoV-2, in both non-hospitalized and hospitalized cases of COVID-19. The specific functions and kinetics of these adaptive immune responses are discussed.
[Cell]
Sette, A., & Crotty, S. (2021). Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.007 Cite
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Nanomaterials for T-Cell Cancer Immunotherapy

Scientists present an overview of nanomaterials that have been used to overcome clinical barriers to T-cell-based immunotherapies and provide their outlook of this emerging field at the interface of cancer immunotherapy and nanomaterial design.
[Nature Nanotechnology]
Gong, N., Sheppard, N. C., Billingsley, M. M., June, C. H., & Mitchell, M. J. (2021). Nanomaterials for T-cell cancer immunotherapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 16(1), 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-00822-y Cite
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Recapitulation of HIV-1 Env-Antibody Coevolution in Macaques Leading to Neutralization Breadth

Neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 in naturally infected humans coevolve with viral envelope proteins in distinctive molecular patterns, in some cases acquiring substantial breadth.
[Science]
Roark, R. S., Li, H., Williams, W. B., Chug, H., Mason, R. D., Gorman, J., Wang, S., Lee, F.-H., Rando, J., Bonsignori, M., Hwang, K.-K., Saunders, K. O., Wiehe, K., Moody, M. A., Hraber, P. T., Wagh, K., Giorgi, E. E., Russell, R. M., Bibollet-Ruche, F., … Shaw, G. M. (2021). Recapitulation of HIV-1 Env-antibody coevolution in macaques leading to neutralization breadth. Science, 371(6525). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd2638 Cite
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