Human Immune System Adaptations to Simulated Microgravity Revealed by Single-Cell Mass Cytometry

Researchers employed a high-dimensional mass cytometry approach to characterize over 250 cell-specific functional responses in 18 innate and adaptive immune cell subsets exposed to 1G or simulated µG using the Rotating Wall Vessel.
[Scientific Reports]
Spatz, J. M., Fulford, M. H., Tsai, A., Gaudilliere, D., Hedou, J., Ganio, E., Angst, M., Aghaeepour, N., & Gaudilliere, B. (2021). Human immune system adaptations to simulated microgravity revealed by single-cell mass cytometry. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11872. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90458-2 Cite
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MET Amplification Attenuates Lung Tumor Response to Immunotherapy by Inhibiting STING

Scientists examined 81 lung cancer patients under immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment and found that patients with MET amplification were resistant to ICB and had a poor progress-free survival.
[Cancer Discovery]
Zhang, Y., Yang, Q., Zeng, X., Wang, M., Dong, S., Yang, B., Tu, X., Wei, T., Xie, W., Zhang, C., Guo, Q., Kloeber, J. A., Cao, Y., Guo, G., Zhou, Q., Zhao, F., Huang, J., Liu, L., Zhang, K., … Lou, Z. (2021). MET amplification attenuates lung tumor response to immunotherapy by inhibiting STING. Cancer Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1500 Cite
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miR-194-5p Down-Regulates Tumor Cell PD-L1 Expression and Promotes Anti-tumor Immunity in Pancreatic Cancer

Investigators found that high expression of miR-194-5p in human pancreatic cancer patients is associated with a better survival rate, while increased expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 in human pancreatic cancer patients is associated with a worse survival rate.
[International Immunopharmacology]
miR-194-5p down-regulates tumor cell PD-L1 expression and promotes anti-tumor immunity in pancreatic cancer. (2021). International Immunopharmacology, 97, 107822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107822 Cite
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Bifunctional TGF-β Trap/IL-15 Protein Complex Elicits Potent NK Cell and CD8+ T Cell Immunity against Solid Tumors

Investigators described the creation of a heterodimeric bifunctional fusion molecule, HCW9218, constructed using their soluble tissue factor-based scaffold technology. This complex comprised extracellular domains of the human transforming growth factor-β receptor II and a human interleukin (IL)-15/IL-15 receptor α complex.
[Molecular Therapy]
Liu, B., Zhu, X., Kong, L., Wang, M., Spanoudis, C., Chaturvedi, P., George, V., Jiao, J., You, L., Egan, J. O., Echeverri, C., Gallo, V. L., Xing, J., Ravelo, K., Prendes, C., Antolinez, J., Denissova, J., Muniz, G. J., Jeng, E. K., … Wong, H. C. (2021). Bifunctional TGF-β trap/IL-15 Protein Complex Elicits Potent NK Cell and CD8+ T Cell Immunity Against Solid Tumors. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.06.001 Cite
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Critical Role of the CD44lowCD62Llow CD8+ T Cell Subset in Restoring Antitumor Immunity in Aged Mice

Researchers investigated the role of T cell function in age-related unresponsiveness to PD-1 blockade cancer therapy. They found inefficient generation of CD44lowCD62Llow CD8+ T cell subset in draining lymph nodes of tumor-bearing aged mice.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Nakajima, Y., Chamoto, K., Oura, T., & Honjo, T. (2021). Critical role of the CD44lowCD62Llow CD8+ T cell subset in restoring antitumor immunity in aged mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(23). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2103730118 Cite
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TP53 Missense Mutations in PDAC Are Associated with Enhanced Fibrosis and an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment

Analysis of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed a negative association between the presence of missense mutp53 and infiltration of CD8+ T cells into the tumor.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Maddalena, M., Mallel, G., Nataraj, N. B., Shreberk-Shaked, M., Hassin, O., Mukherjee, S., Arandkar, S., Rotkopf, R., Kapsack, A., Lambiase, G., Pellegrino, B., Ben-Isaac, E., Golani, O., Addadi, Y., Hajaj, E., Eilam, R., Straussman, R., Yarden, Y., Lotem, M., & Oren, M. (2021). TP53 missense mutations in PDAC are associated with enhanced fibrosis and an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(23). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025631118 Cite
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Secreted Gelsolin Inhibits DNGR-1-Dependent Cross-Presentation and Cancer Immunity

Investigators showed that secreted gelsolin, an extracellular protein, decreased DNGR-1 binding to F-actin and cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens by type 1 conventional dendritic cells.
[Cell]
Giampazolias, E., Schulz, O., Lim, K. H. J., Rogers, N. C., Chakravarty, P., Srinivasan, N., Gordon, O., Cardoso, A., Buck, M. D., Poirier, E. Z., Canton, J., Zelenay, S., Sammicheli, S., Moncaut, N., Varsani-Brown, S., Rosewell, I., & Sousa, C. R. e. (2021). Secreted gelsolin inhibits DNGR-1-dependent cross-presentation and cancer immunity. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.021 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Infection Paralyzes Cytotoxic and Metabolic Functions of the Immune Cells

Researchers ivestigated the immune response in acute or convalescent COVID19 patients. They characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry and found that CD8+ T cells were significantly subsided in moderate COVID-19 and convalescent patients.
[Heliyon]
Singh, Y., Trautwein, C., Fendel, R., Krickeberg, N., Berezhnoy, G., Bissinger, R., Ossowski, S., Salker, M. S., Casadei, N., Riess, O., Altmüller, J., Angelov, A., Bals, R., Bartholomäus, A., Becker, A., Bezdan, D., Bonifacio, E., Bork, P., Casadei, N., … Velázquez, I. A. D. L. R. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 infection paralyzes cytotoxic and metabolic functions of the immune cells. Heliyon, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07147 Cite
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Non-Transplantable Cord Blood Units as a Source for Adoptive Immunotherapy of Leukemia and a Paradigm of Circular Economy in Medicine

Scientists explored the feasibility of generating bivalent-Leuk-STs directed against Wilms tumor 1 and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma from umbilical cord blood units disqualified for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
[British Journal of Haematology]
Koukoulias, K., Papadopoulou, A., Kouimtzidis, A., Papayanni, P.-G., Papaloizou, A., Sotiropoulos, D., Yiangou, M., Costeas, P., Anagnostopoulos, A., Yannaki, E., & Kaloyannidis, P. (n.d.). Non-transplantable cord blood units as a source for adoptive immunotherapy of leukaemia and a paradigm of circular economy in medicine. British Journal of Haematology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17464 Cite
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HTNV Infection of CD8+ T Cells Is Associated with Disease Progression in HFRS Patients

Scientists showed that Hantaan viruses could infect CD8+ T cells in vivo in patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
[Communications Biology]
Liu, R., Ma, R., Liu, Z., Hu, H., Shu, J., Hu, P., Kang, J., Zhang, Y., Han, M., Zhang, X., Zheng, Y., Ying, Q., Hou, S., Wang, W., Wang, F., Cheng, N., Zhuang, Y., Lian, J., Jin, X., & Wu, X. (2021). HTNV infection of CD8+ T cells is associated with disease progression in HFRS patients. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02182-2 Cite
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Apolipoprotein E Promotes Immune Suppression in Pancreatic Cancer through NF-kB-Mediated Production of CXCL1

Investigators reported that ApoE was elevated in peripheral blood monocytes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients, and plasma ApoE protein levels stratified patient survival.
[Cancer Research]
Kemp, S. B., Carpenter, E. S., Steele, N. G., Donahue, K. L., Nwosu, Z. C., Pacheco, A., Velez-Delgado, A., Menjivar, R. E., Lima, F., The, S., Espinoza, C. E., Brown, K., Long, D., Lyssiotis, C. A., Rao, A., Zhang, Y., Magliano, M. P. di, & Crawford, H. C. (2021). Apolipoprotein E promotes immune suppression in pancreatic cancer through NF-kB-mediated production of CXCL1. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3929 Cite
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