Xenogenization of Tumor Cells by Fusogenic Exosomes in Tumor Microenvironment Ignites and Propagates Antitumor Immunity

Researchers suggested a previously unidentified method for xenogenizing tumors by using fusogenic exosomes to introduce fusogenic viral antigens onto the tumor cell surface.
[Science Advances]
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The SKI Proto-Oncogene Restrains the Resident CD103+CD8+ T Cell Response in Viral Clearance

The authors revealed a TGFβ–SKI–Smad4 pathway that critically and specifically directed resident CD103+CD8+ T cell generation for protective immunity against primary and secondary viral infection.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Wu, B., Zhang, G., Guo, Z., Wang, G., Xu, X., Li, J., Whitmire, J. K., Zheng, J., & Wan, Y. Y. (2020). The SKI proto-oncogene restrains the resident CD103 + CD8 + T cell response in viral clearance. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0495-7 Cite
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HLAs, TCRs, and KIRs, a Triumvirate of Human Cell-Mediated Immunity

In all human cells, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I glycoproteins assemble with a peptide and takes it to the cell surface for surveillance by lymphocytes.
[Annual Review of Biochemistry]
Djaoud, Z., & Parham, P. (2020). HLAs, TCRs, and KIRs, a Triumvirate of Human Cell-Mediated Immunity. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 89(1), 717–739. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-biochem-011520-102754 Cite
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IL-18BP Is a Secreted Immune Checkpoint and Barrier to IL-18 Immunotherapy

Researchers showed that IL-18BP, a high-affinity IL-18 decoy receptor, was frequently upregulated in diverse human and mouse tumors and limited the anti-tumor activity of IL-18 in mice.
[Nature]
Zhou, T., Damsky, W., Weizman, O.-E., McGeary, M. K., Hartmann, K. P., Rosen, C. E., … Ring, A. M. (2020). IL-18BP is a secreted immune checkpoint and barrier to IL-18 immunotherapy. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2422-6 Cite
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The Cancer–Natural Killer Cell Immunity Cycle

Investigators discuss how the role of NK cells evolves with tumor progression, presenting new opportunities to target NK cell function to enhance cancer immunotherapy response rates across a more diverse range of cancers.
[Nature Reviews Cancer]
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Thymic Development of Unconventional T Cells: How NKT Cells, MAIT Cells and γδ T Cells Emerge

Scientists describe the thymic development of NK T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and γδ T cells and highlight some of the key differences between conventional and unconventional T cell development.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
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T-Cell Responses following Natural Influenza Infection or Vaccination in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Investigators evaluated the CD4+ and CD8+ responses to influenza A and B infection in a cohort of solid organ transplant patients.
[Scientific Reports]
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Peripherally Induced Brain Tissue–Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Mediate Protection against CNS Infection

Researchers showed that peripheral infections generated antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cells in the brain that adopted a unique tissue resident memory signature.
[Nature Immunology]
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Apatinib Prevents Natural Killer Cell Dysfunction to Enhance the Efficacy of Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Using a syngeneic hepatoceullar carcinoma (HCC) mouse model, the authors demonstrated that treatment with apatinib resulted in attenuation of tumor growth and increased tumor vessel normalization. Results indicated that NK cells, but not CD4+ or CD8+ T cells mediated the therapeutic efficacy of apatinib in HCC mouse models.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
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NKG2D Signaling Within the Pancreatic Islets Reduces NOD Diabetes and Increases Protective Central Memory CD8+ T Cell Numbers

To directly assess the role of NKG2D in the pancreas, scientists generated NOD mice that expressed an NKG2D ligand in β-islet cells.
[Diabetes]
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