Histological, immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence and molecular analyses, as well as lung function tests, were performed to assess pulmonary emphysema, inflammation and alveolar cell apoptosis.
[American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology]
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ADAM17 Deficiency Protects Against Pulmonary Emphysema | American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Articles in Press. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2020, from https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1165/rcmb.2020-0214OC Cite
Scientists demonstrated increased expression of lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR) ligands in adaptive and innate immune cells, enhanced non-canonical NF-κB signalling, and enriched LTβR target gene expression in lung epithelial cells from patients with smoking-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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Conlon, T. M., John-Schuster, G., Heide, D., Pfister, D., Lehmann, M., Hu, Y., Ertüz, Z., Lopez, M. A., Ansari, M., Strunz, M., Mayr, C., Ciminieri, C., Costa, R., Kohlhepp, M. S., Guillot, A., Günes, G., Jeridi, A., Funk, M. C., Beroshvili, G., … Yildirim, A. Ö. (2020). Inhibition of LTβR signalling activates WNT-induced regeneration in lung. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2882-8 Cite
The authors explored the circular RNA profile in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the effects of hsa_circNFXL1_009 on abnormal proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells driven by hypoxia.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
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The authors demonstrated that monocyte-derived Mɸ exposed to neutrophil elastas releases active matrix metalloproteinases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-8, and reduced capacity to phagocytose bacteria.
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Levels of mmunoglobulin (igs) in induced sputum, a more direct measure of airway Igs, are not well studied. Given the vital role Igs perform in microbial defence and tissue homeostasis, investigators assessed airway Igs in induced sputum of smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[European Respiratory Journal]
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Cass, S. P., Yang, Y., Xiao, J., McGrath, J. J. C., Fantauzzi, M. F., Thayaparan, D., Wang, F., Liang, Z., Long, F., Stevenson, C. S., Chen, R., & Stampfli, M. R. (2020). Current smoking status is associated with reduced sputum immunoglobulin M and G expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02338-2019 Cite
To investigate how high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) affects the barrier of normal human lung epithelial cells, monolayer cells and bronchial-like spheroid cells, which have lumen formation, were pretreated with TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor EW-7197 before treatment with HMGB1.
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Kodera, Y., Kohno, T., Konno, T., Arai, W., Tsujiwaki, M., Shindo, Y., Chiba, H., Miyakawa, M., Tanaka, H., Sakuma, Y., Watanabe, A., Takahashi, H., & Kojima, T. (2020). HMGB1 enhances epithelial permeability via p63/TGF-β signaling in lung and terminal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue Barriers, 0(0), 1805997. https://doi.org/10.1080/21688370.2020.1805997 Cite
Scientists found that EGCG treatment blocked cigarette smoke extract-induced oxidative stress as indicated by decreased production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in airway epithelial cells.
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Verona Pharma plc announced the initiation of the second, multiple dose, part of a Phase II trial to evaluate the pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulation of ensifentrine in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[Verona Pharma plc]
Investigators evaluated the effects of an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody in non-allergic disease models of experimental cigarette-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bleomycin-induced lung injury in Siglec-8 transgenic mice.
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Schanin, J., Gebremeskel, S., Korver, W., Falahati, R., Butuci, M., Haw, T. J., Nair, P. M., Liu, G., Hansbro, N. G., Hansbro, P. M., Evensen, E., Brock, E. C., Xu, A., Wong, A., Leung, J., Bebbington, C., Tomasevic, N., & Youngblood, B. A. (2020). A monoclonal antibody to Siglec-8 suppresses non-allergic airway inflammation and inhibits IgE-independent mast cell activation. Mucosal Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00336-9 Cite
Using human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy donors, researchers found that cigarette smoke exposure was not associated with significant changes in the production of pro inflammatory cytokines by MDMs.
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da Silva, C. O., Gicquel, T., Daniel, Y., Bártholo, T., Vène, E., Loyer, P., Pôrto, L. C., Lagente, V., & Victoni, T. (2020). Alteration of immunophenotype of human macrophages and monocytes after exposure to cigarette smoke. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12796. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68753-1 Cite
Researchers investigated whether the pharmacological sirtuin 1 activator SRT2104 protects against Type II alveolar epithelial cell senescence in rats with emphysema.
[COPD-Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]
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