IL-15 Superagonist N-803 Improves IFNγ Production and Killing of Leukemia and Ovarian Cancer Cells by CD34+ Progenitor-Derived NK Cells

Researchers investigated whether and how N-803 improves hematopoietic progenitor cell-natural killer cell functionality in leukemia and ovarian cancer (OC) models in vitro and in vivo in OC-bearing immunodeficient mice.
[Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy]
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CNS-Native Myeloid Cells Drive Immune Suppression in the Brain Metastatic Niche through Cxcl10

Applying multimodal single-cell analyses, investigators elucidated a heterogeneous but spatially defined central nervous system (CNS)-myeloid response during brain metastasis (br-met) outgrowth. We found Ccr2+ bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells minimally influenced br-met while CNS-myeloid promoted br-met outgrowth.
[Cell]
Guldner, I. H., Wang, Q., Yang, L., Golomb, S. M., Zhao, Z., Lopez, J. A., Brunory, A., Howe, E. N., Zhang, Y., Palakurthi, B., Barron, M., Gao, H., Xuei, X., Liu, Y., Li, J., Chen, D. Z., Landreth, G. E., & Zhang, S. (2020). CNS-Native Myeloid Cells Drive Immune Suppression in the Brain Metastatic Niche through Cxcl10. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.064 Cite
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m6A RNA Methyltransferases METTL3/14 Regulate Immune Responses to Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Researchers showed that inhibition of N6‐methyladenosine mRNA modification by depletion of methyltransferases enhanced response to anti‐PD‐1 treatment in pMMR‐MSI‐L colorectal cancer and melanoma.
[EMBO Journal]
Wang, L., Hui, H., Agrawal, K., Kang, Y., Li, N., Tang, R., Yuan, J., & Rana, T. M. (2020). m6A RNA methyltransferases METTL3/14 regulate immune responses to anti-PD-1 therapy. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e104514. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020104514 Cite
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SFMBT2-Mediated Infiltration of Preadipocytes and TAMs in Prostate Cancer

Researchers investigated whether the down-regulation of Scm-like with four mbt domains 2 (SFMBT2) regulated the infiltration of preadipocytes and tumor-associated macrophages in prostate cancer.
[Cancers]
Gwak, J., Jeong, H., Lee, K., Shin, J. Y., Sim, T., Na, J., Kim, J., & Ju, B.-G. (2020). SFMBT2-Mediated Infiltration of Preadipocytes and TAMs in Prostate Cancer. Cancers, 12(9), 2718. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092718 Cite
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Downregulation of the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL10/CXCR3 Axes Contributes to Antitumor Effects in a Mouse Model of Malignant Glioma

Scientists studied the importance of paracrine signaling in the glioma microenvironment by focusing on the celecoxib-mediated role of chemokines C–C motif ligand 2, C-X-C ligand 10, and their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR3, in glioma stem cells (GSCs) and a GSC-bearing malignant glioma model.
[Scientific Reports]
Shono, K., Yamaguchi, I., Mizobuchi, Y., Kagusa, H., Sumi, A., Fujihara, T., Nakajima, K., Kitazato, K. T., Matsuzaki, K., Saya, H., & Takagi, Y. (2020). Downregulation of the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL10/CXCR3 axes contributes to antitumor effects in a mouse model of malignant glioma. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15286. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71857-3 Cite
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CYP2S1 Might Regulate Proliferation and Immune Response of Keratinocyte in Psoriasis

Investigators performed methylation loci fine-mapping to search the top signals in the entire CYP2S1 gene region, and further carried out gene expression assay, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration in CYP2S1 overexpressed (CYP2S1over) and silenced human keratinocytes.
[Epigenetics]
Sheng, Y., Wen, L., Zheng, X., Li, M., Wang, D., Chen, S., Li, R., Tang, L., & Zhou, F. (2020). CYP2S1 might regulate proliferation and immune response of keratinocyte in psoriasis. Epigenetics, 0(0), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2020.1814486 Cite
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Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs2) Induce CNS Demyelination in an HSV-IL-2 Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Histologic examination of infected IL-2rα-/-, IL-2rβ-/-, and IL-2rγ-/- mice showed demyelination in the CNS of IL-2rα-/- and IL-2rβ-/- mice but not in the CNS of IL-2rγ-/- infected mice.
[iScience]
Hirose, S., Jahani, P. S., Wang, S., Jaggi, U., Tormanen, K., Yu, J., Kato, M., Akbari, O., & Ghiasi, H. (2020). Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs2) induce CNS demyelination in an HSV-IL-2 mouse model of multiple sclerosis. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101549 Cite
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Lighting Up the Fire in Cold Tumors to Improve Cancer Immunotherapy by Blocking the Activity of the Autophagy-Related Protein PIK3C3/VPS34

The authors revealed that genetically targeting the autophagy-related protein PIK3C3/VPS34 in melanoma and colorectal tumor cells, or treating tumor-bearing mice with selective inhibitors of the PIK3C3/VPS34 kinase activity, reprograms cold immune desert tumors into hot, inflamed immune infiltrated tumors.
[Autophagy]
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CXCR3 and Cognate Ligands Are Associated with Immune Cell Alteration and Aggressiveness of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) microarray and TCGA datasets were analyzed to identify cytokines and cognate receptors overexpressed in PDAC and associated with survival.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Batra, S. K., Cannon, A., Thompson, C. M., Maurer, C., Atri, P., Bhatia, R., West, S., Ghersi, D., Olive, K. P., & Kumar, S. (2020). CXCR3 and Cognate Ligands Are Associated with Immune Cell Alteration and Aggressiveness of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1359 Cite
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Uncontrolled Innate and Impaired Adaptive Immune Responses in Patients with COVID-19 ARDS

Scientists ccompared the immunopathology of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to that of non-COVID-19 ARDS, and identified biomarkers associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 ARDS.
[American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine]
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