Liver X Receptor Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colonic Epithelial Cells via ABCA1 and Its Expression Is Decreased in Human and Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease

IL-1β decreased the expression of the LXR target gene ABCA1 in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. The synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 led to a decreased nuclear positivity of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B, a phosphorylation ratio of the p44-42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the expression of CCL-28 and IL-8 in IL-1β-stimulated Caco-2 cells.
[Inflammatory Bowel Diseases]
Miranda-Bautista, J., Rodríguez-Feo, J. A., Puerto, M., López-Cauce, B., Lara, J. M., González-Novo, R., Martín-Hernández, D., Ferreiro-Iglesias, R., Bañares, R., & Menchén, L. (2021). Liver X Receptor Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colonic Epithelial Cells via ABCA1 and Its Expression Is Decreased in Human and Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, izab034. https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izab034 Cite
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Antibody Affinity Maturation and Plasma IgA Associate with Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Scientists examined longitudinal plasma samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients with differential clinical outcome.
[Nature Communications]
Tang, J., Ravichandran, S., Lee, Y., Grubbs, G., Coyle, E. M., Klenow, L., Genser, H., Golding, H., & Khurana, S. (2021). Antibody affinity maturation and plasma IgA associate with clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1221. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21463-2 Cite
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HIV Induces Airway Basal Progenitor Cells to Adopt an Inflammatory Phenotype

Researchers hypothesized that HIV induced the basal stem/progenitor cells to express inflammatory mediators that contributed to the pathogenesis of emphysema.
[Scientific Reports]
Chung, N. P. Y., Khan, K. M. F., Kaner, R. J., O’Beirne, S. L., & Crystal, R. G. (2021). HIV induces airway basal progenitor cells to adopt an inflammatory phenotype. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3988. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82143-1 Cite
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Pluripotency and Immunomodulatory Signatures of Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are Similar to Harvested Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

With a view towards harnessing the therapeutic potential of canine (c)MSCs as modulators of inflammation and the immune response, and to avoid the issues of the variable quality and quantity of harvested cMSCs, scientists examined the immunomodulatory properties of cMSCs derived from canine induced pluripotent stem cells, and compared them to cMSCs harvested from adipose tissue and bone marrow.
[Scientific Reports]
Shahsavari, A., Weeratunga, P., Ovchinnikov, D. A., & Whitworth, D. J. (2021). Pluripotency and immunomodulatory signatures of canine induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells are similar to harvested mesenchymal stromal cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3486. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82856-3 Cite
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Perinatal Tissues for Treatment of Critically Ill COVID-19-Induced ARDS Patients: A Case Series

In this Phase I clinical trial, researchers present the safety, feasibility, and tolerability of the multiple infusions of high dose MSCs, which originated from the placenta and umbilical cord, in critically ill COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Hashemian, S.-M. R., Aliannejad, R., Zarrabi, M., Soleimani, M., Vosough, M., Hosseini, S.-E., Hossieni, H., Keshel, S. H., Naderpour, Z., Hajizadeh-Saffar, E., Shajareh, E., Jamaati, H., Soufi-Zomorrod, M., Khavandgar, N., Alemi, H., Karimi, A., Pak, N., Rouzbahani, N. H., Nouri, M., … Baharvand, H. (2021). Mesenchymal stem cells derived from perinatal tissues for treatment of critically ill COVID-19-induced ARDS patients: a case series. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 91. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02165-4 Cite
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Perinatal Gram-Positive Bacteria Exposure Elicits Distinct Cytokine Responses In Vitro

The authors stimulated freshly isolated umbilical blood mononuclear cells with lysates of E. faecalis, S. agalacticae, and S. aureus collected from pregnant women in preterm labor.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Reuschel, E., Toelge, M., Haeusler, S., Deml, L., Seelbach-Goebel, B., & Solano, M. E. (2021). Perinatal Gram-Positive Bacteria Exposure Elicits Distinct Cytokine Responses In Vitro. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(1), 332. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010332 Cite
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Granzyme B Inhibition Reduces Disease Severity in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

Scientists explored the role of the immune cell-secreted serine protease, granzyme B, in pemphigoid disease pathogenesis using three independent murine models. In all models, granzyme B knockout or topical pharmacological inhibition significantly reduces total blistering area compared to controls.
[Nature Communications]
Hiroyasu, S., Zeglinski, M. R., Zhao, H., Pawluk, M. A., Turner, C. T., Kasprick, A., Tateishi, C., Nishie, W., Burleigh, A., Lennox, P. A., Van Laeken, N., Carr, N. J., Petersen, F., Crawford, R. I., Shimizu, H., Tsuruta, D., Ludwig, R. J., & Granville, D. J. (2021). Granzyme B inhibition reduces disease severity in autoimmune blistering diseases. Nature Communications, 12(1), 302. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20604-3 Cite
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Octenidine-Based Hydrogel Shows Anti-Inflammatory and Protease-Inhibitory Capacities in Wounded Human Skin

Proteomics analysis of octenidine dihydrochloride-treated skin wounds revealed significant lower levels of key players in tissue remodeling as well as reepithelization after wounding such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix-metalloproteinases when compared to controls.
[Scientific Reports]
Seiser, S., Janker, L., Zila, N., Mildner, M., Rakita, A., Matiasek, J., Bileck, A., Gerner, C., Paulitschke, V., & Elbe-Bürger, A. (2021). Octenidine-based hydrogel shows anti-inflammatory and protease-inhibitory capacities in wounded human skin. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 32. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79378-9 Cite
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Interleukin-8, Neutrophils, and NETs in a Collusion against Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy

IL-8 has been reported to favor cancer progression and metastases via different mechanisms, including pro-angiogenesis and maintenance of cancer stem cells, but its ability to attract and functionally modulate neutrophils and macrophages arguably may be the most important factors.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Teijeira, A., Garasa, S., Ochoa, M. C., Esparza, M. V., Olivera, I., Cirella, A., Eguren-Santamaria, I., Berraondo, P., Schalper, K. A., Andrea, C. E. de, Sanmamed, M. F., & Melero, I. (2020). Interleukin-8, Neutrophils, and NETs in a Collusion against Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1319 Cite
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Regulation of PD-L1 Expression Is a Novel Facet of Cyclic-AMP-Mediated Immunosuppression

Using normal and malignant lymphocytes from humans, and the phosphodiesterase 4b knockout mouse, scientists found that cAMP induced PD-L1 transcription and protein expression.
[Leukemia]
Sasi, B., Ethiraj, P., Myers, J., Lin, A.-P., Jiang, S., Qiu, Z., Holder, K. N., & Aguiar, R. C. T. (2020). Regulation of PD-L1 expression is a novel facet of cyclic-AMP-mediated immunosuppression. Leukemia, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01105-0 Cite
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Salidroside Regulates Inflammatory Pathway of Alveolar Macrophages by Influencing the Secretion of miRNA-146a Exosomes by Lung Epithelial Cells

Scientists explored the investigative mechanism of salidroside on LPS-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.
[Scientific Reports]
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