Biological Characteristics of a Sub-Population of Cancer Stem Cells from Two Triple-Negative Breast Tumor Cell Lines

The authors determined differences in ultrastructural morphology, proliferative capacity, and mouse-xenotransplantation characteristics of the MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 triple-negative breast tumor cell lines with the CD44high/CD24low phenotype in order to study their exosomes.
[Heliyon]
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AP-1 Is a Temporally Regulated Dual Gatekeeper of Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Scientists examined epigenome remodeling at the onset of human nuclear reprogramming by profiling human fibroblasts after fusion with murine ESCs. Efficient reprogramming of human fibroblasts to iPSCs was achieved by transduction with vectors expressing SOX2, KLF4, and inducible dnAP-1, demonstrating that dnAP-1 can substitute for exogenous human OCT4.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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High Throughput Screening Identifies SOX2 as a Super Pioneer Factor That Inhibits DNA Methylation Maintenance at Its Binding Sites

Using a highly parallelized approach to investigate pioneer transcription factor (PF) ability to bind methylated DNA and induce DNA demethylation, researchers showed the complex interdependence between DNA methylation and transcription factor binding; while some PFs did not affect the methylation status of their binding sites, they identified PFs that could protect DNA from methylation and others that could induce DNA demethylation at methylated binding sites.
[Nature Communications]
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Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 3 Deubiquitinates and Stabilizes Oct4 Protein in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Investigators generated a ubiquitin-specific protease 3 gene knockout using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and demonstrated that USP3 acts as a protein stabilizer of Oct4 by deubiquitinating Oct4.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Rhie, B.-H., Antao, A. M., Karapurkar, J. K., Kim, M.-S., Jo, W.-J., Ramakrishna, S., & Kim, K.-S. (2021). Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 3 Deubiquitinates and Stabilizes Oct4 Protein in Human Embryonic Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(11), 5584. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115584 Cite
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Oct4 Confers Stemness and Radioresistance to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Regulating the Homologous Recombination Factors PSMC3IP and RAD54L

Investigators provided evidence that the CSC-related transcription factor Oct4 contributes to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma radioresistance by regulating DNA damage response and the CSC phenotype.
[Oncogene]
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The Pluripotency Transcription Factor OCT4 Represses Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression

Scientists found that the HO-1 gene was expressed in ESCs and induced after promoting differentiation. Downregulation of the pluripotency transcription factor (TF) OCT4 increased HO-1 mRNA levels in ESCs, and analysis of ChIP-seq public data revealed that this TF bound to the HO-1 gene locus in pluripotent cells.
[FEB Letters]
Petrone, M. V., Toro, A., Echegaray, C. V., Francia, M. G., Solari, C., Cosentino, M. S., Vazquez, E., & Guberman, A. (n.d.). The pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 represses heme oxygenase-1 gene expression. FEBS Letters, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.14138 Cite
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Development, Characterization, and Hematopoietic Differentiation of Griscelli Syndrome Type 2 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers generated iPSCs from 3 different GS-2 patients using lentiviral vectors. The iPSCs were characterized using flow cytometry and RT-PCR and tested for the expression of pluripotency markers. In vivo differentiation to cells from all three germlines was tested using a teratoma assay. In vitro differentiation of GS-2 iPSCs into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was done using Op9 feeder layers and specified media.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Prostate Cancer Cell Stemness via Cell–Cell Contact to Activate the Jagged1/Notch1 Pathway

Scientists investigated the effect of direct contact of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with mesenchymal stem cells on the stemness of PCa and its mechanisms.
[Cell and Bioscience]
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Fluid Shear Stress Promotes Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency via Interplay between β‐catenin and Vinculin in Bioreactor Culture

Researchers investigated how murine ESCs sense fluid shear stress and modulate a non‐canonical Wnt signaling response to promote pluripotency.
[Stem Cells]
Nath, S. C., Day, B., Harper, L., Yee, J., Hsu, C. Y.-M., Larijani, L., Rohani, L., Duan, N., Kallos, M. S., & Rancourt, D. E. (n.d.). Fluid Shear Stress Promotes Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency via Interplay between β-catenin and Vinculin in Bioreactor Culture. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3382 Cite
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Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Spheroid Formation in HT-29 and Caco-2 Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

Colorectal cancer spheroids were developed using hanging drop and forced floating in serum-free and non-attachment conditions and their morphological features were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy.
[Cancer Cell International]
Gheytanchi, E., Naseri, M., Karimi-Busheri, F., Atyabi, F., Mirsharif, E. S., Bozorgmehr, M., Ghods, R., & Madjd, Z. (2021). Morphological and molecular characteristics of spheroid formation in HT-29 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 204. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01898-9 Cite
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Frequent Loss-of-Heterozygosity in CRISPR-Cas9–Edited Early Human Embryos

Scientists developed computational pipelines to assess single-cell genomics and transcriptomics datasets from OCT4 CRISPR-Cas9–targeted and control human preimplantation embryos
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Alanis-Lobato, G., Zohren, J., McCarthy, A., Fogarty, N. M. E., Kubikova, N., Hardman, E., Greco, M., Wells, D., Turner, J. M. A., & Niakan, K. K. (2021). Frequent loss-of-heterozygosity in CRISPR-Cas9–edited early human embryos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004832117 Cite
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