Scientists used single-cell whole-genome transcriptional profiling and protein quantification to investigate the role of OCT4 in establishing pluripotency in the murine embryo.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Stirparo, G. G., Kurowski, A., Yanagida, A., Bates, L. E., Strawbridge, S. E., Hladkou, S., Stuart, H. T., Boroviak, T. E., Silva, J. C. R., & Nichols, J. (2021). OCT4 induces embryonic pluripotency via STAT3 signaling and metabolic mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(3). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008890118 Cite
Scientists found that the CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) protein levels in glioblastoma patients were significantly increased and further contributed to temozolamide resistance by promoting glioma-like stem cell formation.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Wang, S.-M., Lin, W.-C., Lin, H.-Y., Chen, Y.-L., Ko, C.-Y., & Wang, J.-M. (2021). CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein delta mediates glioma stem-like cell enrichment and ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 activation for temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00399-4 Cite
Using an RNA-seq platform, scientists identified and validated the differential gene expression of five transcription factors that were associated with a remarkable increase in the number of iPSC colonies generated from a patient with Parkinson’s disease.
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Swaidan, N. T., Salloum-Asfar, S., Palangi, F., Errafii, K., Soliman, N. H., Aboughalia, A. T., Wali, A. H. S., Abdulla, S. A., & Emara, M. M. (2020). Identification of potential transcription factors that enhance human iPSC generation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21950. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78932-9 Cite
Overexpression of stemness factors NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 by introduction of gene constructs in Hep3B cells suppressed two miRNA expression levels. Treatment of chromeceptin, an IGF signaling pathway inhibitor, decreased numbers of tumorsphere and inhibited the AKT/mTOR pathway.
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Using Western blotting and qRT-PCR analyses, investigators revealed that in the T47D and BT20 breast cancer cell lines, astaxanthin inhibited expression of pontin and mutp53, as well as the Oct4 and Nanog cancer stem cell stemness genes.
One promising alternative can be human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that provide an unlimited source of cells. Human PSCs, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are self-renewing progenitors that can be differentiated to lineages of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Deregulation of PARK7 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer. Scientists clarified the effect of PARK7 on stemness and radioresistance of glioblastoma stem cells.
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Investigators first defined the transcription factors (TF) reprogramome, i.e., the full complement of TFs to be reprogrammed. Most TFs were resistant to OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC reprogramming at the initial stages, an observation consistent with the inefficiency and long latency of iPSC reprogramming.
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Cevallos, R. R., Edwards, Y. J. K., Parant, J. M., Yoder, B. K., & Hu, K. (2020). Human transcription factors responsive to initial reprogramming predominantly undergo legitimate reprogramming during fibroblast conversion to iPSCs. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19710. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76705-y Cite
Investigators explore the literature on markers able to identify MSCs as well as the presence of these cells in the healthy periodontal ligament and chronic periapical lesions, highlighting their role in regenerative medicine and implications in the progression of these lesions.
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Couto de Carvalho, L. A., Tosta dos Santos, S. L., Sacramento, L. V., de Almeida, V. R., de Aquino Xavier, F. C., dos Santos, J. N., & Gomes Henriques Leitão, Á. C. (2020). Mesenchymal stem cell markers in periodontal tissues and periapical lesions. Acta Histochemica, 122(8), 151636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2020.151636 Cite
Scientists demonstrated that in vitro transduction of normal human CD4+ T lymphocytes with NPM-ALK resulted in their immortalization and malignant transformation.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Researchers performed a features-oriented CRISPR-utilized systematic screen of OCT4-bound cis-regulatory elements using CRISPR-Cas9 to identify functional enhancers important for pluripotency maintenance in mouse embryonic stem cells.
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Wang, H. F., Warrier, T., Farran, C. A., Zheng, Z. H., Xing, Q. R., Fullwood, M. J., Zhang, L.-F., Li, H., Xu, J., Lim, T.-M., & Loh, Y.-H. (2020). Defining Essential Enhancers for Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Features-Oriented CRISPR-Cas9 Screen. Cell Reports, 33(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108309 Cite