Nkx2‐3 Induces Autophagy Inhibiting Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway

Investigators used carotid balloon injury model and platelet‐derived growth factor‐BB‐treated vascular smooth muscle cells as in vivo and in vitro experimental models.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
Zheng, H., Zhai, W., Zhong, C., Hong, Q., Li, H., Rui, B., Zhu, X., Que, D., Feng, L., Yu, B., Huang, G., Yin, J., Li, J., Yan, J., & Yang, P. (n.d.). Nkx2-3 induces autophagy inhibiting proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30400 Cite
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PDGF-Mediated Activation of CREB in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Alters Cell Cycling Via Rb, FoxO1 and p27kip1

Researchers show CREB phosphorylation was required for smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This phenotypic change required CBP and was mediated by Cyclin D1 and p27kip as a result of changes in FoxO1 activity.
[Experimental Cell Research]
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Microglial Neuropilin-1 Promotes Oligodendrocyte Expansion during Development and Remyelination by Trans-Activating Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor

Researchers showed that the type 1 integral membrane protein neuropilin-1 was expressed not on oligodendrocyte precursor cells but on amoeboid and activated microglia in white but not gray matter in an age- and activity-dependent manner.
[Nature Communications]
Sherafat, A., Pfeiffer, F., Reiss, A. M., Wood, W. M., & Nishiyama, A. (2021). Microglial neuropilin-1 promotes oligodendrocyte expansion during development and remyelination by trans-activating platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2265. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22532-2 Cite
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Smooth Muscle Cell–Specific PKM (Pyruvate Kinase M) 2 Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switching and Neointimal Hyperplasia

Investigators report that PKM2 deletion in SMC reduced injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting SMC proliferation and migration, suppressing synthetic phenotype, and reducing aerobic glycolysis associated with decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase, mTOR, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling.
[Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology]
Jain Manish, Dhanesha Nirav, Doddapattar Prakash, Nayak Manasa K., Guo Liang, Cornelissen Anne, Lentz Steven R., Finn Aloke V., & Chauhan Anil K. (n.d.). Smooth Muscle Cell–Specific PKM (Pyruvate Kinase M) 2 Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switching and Neointimal Hyperplasia. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 0(0), ATVBAHA.121.316021. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.316021 Cite
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Substantial Involvement of TRPM7 Inhibition in the Therapeutic Effect of Ophiocordyceps sinensis on Pulmonary Hypertension

The therapeutic potential of Ophiocordyceps sinensis for pulmonary hypertension (PH) was investigated using rodent PH models, and cultured pulmonary artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells, with a focus on the involvement of TRPM7.
[Translational Research]
Hiraishi, K., Kurahara, L. H., Feng, J., Yamamura, A., Cui, Y., Yahiro, E., Yokomise, H., Go, T., Ishikawa, K., Yokota, N., Fujiwara, A., Onitsuka, M., Abe, K., Ohga, S., Satoh, T., Okada, Y., Yue, L., Inoue, R., & Hirano, K. (2021). Substantial involvement of TRPM7 inhibition in the therapeutic effect of Ophiocordyceps sinensis on pulmonary hypertension. Translational Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2021.03.004 Cite
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Up-Regulation of miR-34b/C by Jnk and FOXO3 Protects from Liver Fibrosis

Researchers investigated differential expression of microRNAs between PiZ and control mice and found that miR-34b/c was up-regulated and its levels correlated with intrahepatic Z α1-antitrypsin.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Piccolo, P., Ferriero, R., Barbato, A., Attanasio, S., Monti, M., Perna, C., Borel, F., Annunziata, P., Carissimo, A., Cegli, R. D., Quagliata, L., Terracciano, L. M., Housset, C., Teckman, J. H., Mueller, C., & Brunetti-Pierri, N. (2021). Up-regulation of miR-34b/c by JNK and FOXO3 protects from liver fibrosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(10). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025242118 Cite
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Multiple Cell Types Contribute to the Atherosclerotic Lesion Fibrous Cap by PDGFRβ and Bioenergetic Mechanisms

Researchers showed that smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific knockout of the Pdgfrb gene, which encodes platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), in Apoe−/− mice fed a Western diet for 18 weeks resulted in brachiocephalic artery lesions nearly devoid of SMCs but with no changes in lesion size, remodelling or indices of stability, including the percentage of ACTA2+ fibrous cap cells.
[Nature Metabolism]
Newman, A. A. C., Serbulea, V., Baylis, R. A., Shankman, L. S., Bradley, X., Alencar, G. F., Owsiany, K., Deaton, R. A., Karnewar, S., Shamsuzzaman, S., Salamon, A., Reddy, M. S., Guo, L., Finn, A., Virmani, R., Cherepanova, O. A., & Owens, G. K. (2021). Multiple cell types contribute to the atherosclerotic lesion fibrous cap by PDGFRβ and bioenergetic mechanisms. Nature Metabolism, 3(2), 166–181. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00338-8 Cite
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Crenolanib Regulates ERk and AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways in RAS/BRAF-Mutated Colorectal Cancer Cells and Organoids

Scientists used multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to investigate the growth-inhibitory effect of crenolanib and its effect in combination with other cytotoxic agents. Primary cultures of patient-derived organoids, a model that reflects the heterogeneity of clinical CRC, were used to further validate the effects of crenolanib.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
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ALK Ligand ALKAL2 Potentiates MYCN-Driven Neuroblastoma in the Absence of ALK Mutation

Scientists tested whether anaplastic lymphoma kinase AL2 (ALKAL2) ligand could potentiate neuroblastoma progression in the absence of ALK mutation
[EMBO Journal]
Borenäs, M., Umapathy, G., Lai, W.-Y., Lind, D. E., Witek, B., Guan, J., Mendoza-Garcia, P., Masudi, T., Claeys, A., Chuang, T.-P., El Wakil, A., Arefin, B., Fransson, S., Koster, J., Johansson, M., Gaarder, J., Van den Eynden, J., Hallberg, B., & Palmer, R. H. (2021). ALK ligand ALKAL2 potentiates MYCN-driven neuroblastoma in the absence of ALK mutation. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105784. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105784 Cite
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Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Therapy Improves Survival After Radiation Injury but Does Not Restore Endogenous Hematopoiesis

Scientists examine the efficacy of a human bone marrow-derived MSC therapy delivered at three or 30 hours in ameliorating radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome and show that pancytopenia persists despite MSC therapy.
[Scientific Reports]

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PDGF Mediates Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Regulating NFATc2

Researchers investigated whether platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF) affects the proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by regulating nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT), and to study the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
[Molecular Medicine Reports]
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