Characterisation of CD4+ T-Cell Subtypes Using Single Cell RNA Sequencing and the Impact of Cell Number and Sequencing Depth

Scientists found that the reparative macrophage transition was dictated by B-cell adapter for PI3K (BCAP). Mice harboring a macrophage-specific deletion of BCAP fail to recover from and succumb to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis due to prolonged intestinal inflammation and impaired tissue repair.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Characterisation of CD4+ T-cell subtypes using single cell RNA sequencing and the impact of cell number and sequencing depth | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76972-9 Cite
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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Cardiomyocyte-Secreted Exosomes Promote the Pathogenesis of DMD-Associated Cardiomyopathy

Investigators determine the phenotypic responses of DMD cardiomyocytes (DMD-iCMs) after long-term exposure to DMD cardiac exosomes. DMD-iCMs were vulnerable to stress, evidenced by production of reactive oxygen species, the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death levels.
[Disease Models & Mechanisms]
Gartz, M., Lin, C.-W., Sussman, M. A., Lawlor, M. W., & Strande, J. L. (2020). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cardiomyocyte-secreted exosomes promote the pathogenesis of DMD-associated cardiomyopathy. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 13(11). https://doi.org/10.1242/dmm.045559 Cite
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Prokineticin Receptor 1 Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

Researchers measured the expression levels of Prokineticin receptor 1 (Prokr1) in the skeletal muscle of mice as well as human skeletal muscle cell‐derived myotubes. Prokineticin 2 (PROK2), a ligand of PROKR1, induced calcium mobilization in a dose‐dependent manner and altered the mRNA levels of 578 genes in PROKR1‐overexpressed HEK293T cells.
[FASEB Journal]
Mok, J., Park, T. S., Kim, S., Kim, D., Choi, C. S., & Park, J. (n.d.). Prokineticin receptor 1 ameliorates insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. The FASEB Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001641R Cite
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AdipoR1/AdipoR2 Dual Agonist Recovers Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Related Fibrosis via Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Axis

Investigators synthesized and reported an adiponectin-based agonist JT003, which potently improved insulin resistance in high fat diet induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis mice and suppresses hepatic stellate cells activation in CCl4 induced liver fibrosis.
[Nature Communications]
Xu, H., Zhao, Q., Song, N., Yan, Z., Lin, R., Wu, S., Jiang, L., Hong, S., Xie, J., Zhou, H., Wang, R., & Jiang, X. (2020). AdipoR1/AdipoR2 dual agonist recovers nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and related fibrosis via endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria axis. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5807. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19668-y Cite
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PLK1 and NOTCH Positively Correlate in Melanoma and their Combined Inhibition Results in Synergistic Modulations of Key Melanoma Pathways

Employing an in-house human melanoma tissue microarray containing multiple cases of melanomas and benign nevi, coupled with high-throughput, multispectral quantitative fluorescence imaging analysis, researchers found a positive correlation between PLK1 and NOTCH1 in melanoma.
[Molecular Cancer Therapeutics]
Su, S., Chhabra, G., Ndiaye, M. A., Singh, C. K., Ye, T., Huang, W., Dewey, C. N., Setaluri, V., & Ahmad, N. (2020). PLK1 and NOTCH Positively Correlate in Melanoma and their Combined Inhibition Results in Synergistic Modulations of Key Melanoma Pathways. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. https://doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0654 Cite
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PTRH2: An Adhesion Regulated Molecular Switch at the Nexus of Life, Death, and Differentiation

Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 is an underappreciated regulator of adhesion signals and Bcl2 expression. Its key roles in muscle differentiation and integrin-mediated signaling are central to the pathology of a recently identified patient syndrome caused by a cluster of Ptrh2 gene mutations.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Exosomal miR-590-3p Derived from Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Confers Radioresistance in Colorectal Cancer

Scientists investigated whether miR-590-3p participates in the radioresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC). High expression of miR-590-3p and low expression of CLCA4 was found in both CRC tissues and cell lines.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
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Exosomal miR-590-3p Derived from Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Confers Radioresistance in Colorectal Cancer

High expression of miR-590-3p and low expression of CLCA4 was found in both colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and cell lines. CLCA4 was indicated as a target gene of miR-590-3p. CAF-derived exosomes were extracted and co-cultured with CRC cells which were then exposed to radiation.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
Chen, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, Q., Liu, B., Cheng, Y., Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Liu, J., & Ge, H. (2020). Exosomal miR-590-3p derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts confers radioresistance in colorectal cancer. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.11.003 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals Heterogeneous Tumor and Immune Cell Populations in Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinomas Harboring EGFR Mutations

Scientists identified diverse cell types within the tumor microenvironment in which myeloid cells and T cells were the most abundant stromal cell types in tumors and adjacent lung tissues.
[Oncogene]
Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals heterogeneous tumor and immune cell populations in early-stage lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations | Oncogene. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41388-020-01528-0 Cite
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Inhibition of Histamine Receptor H3 Suppresses the Growth and Metastasis of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells via Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK Signaling Pathways and Blocking EMT

In five human NSCLC cell lines tested, histamine receptor H3 (Hrh3) was significantly upregulated. In NSCLC cell lines H1975, H460, and A549, Hrh3 antagonist ciproxifan exerted moderate and concentration-dependent inhibition on the cell growth and induced apoptosis, whereas its agonist RAMH reversed these effects.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Zhao, Y., Jia, J., Zhang, J., Xun, Y., Xie, S., Liang, J., Guo, H., Zhu, J., Ma, S., & Zhang, S. (2020). Inhibition of histamine receptor H3 suppresses the growth and metastasis of human non-small cell lung cancer cells via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK signaling pathways and blocking EMT. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00548-6 Cite
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Copanlisib Promotes Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis by Modulating the AKT/FoxO3a/PUMA Axis in Colorectal Cancer

Scientists examined the mechanism by which copanlisib induces PUMA and its function in chemosensitization and apoptosis. They assessed the roles of FoxO3a and PUMA in the anticancer activity of copanlisib.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Copanlisib promotes growth inhibition and apoptosis by modulating the AKT/FoxO3a/PUMA axis in colorectal cancer | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved November 6, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-03154-w Cite
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