Human Immune System Adaptations to Simulated Microgravity Revealed by Single-Cell Mass Cytometry

Researchers employed a high-dimensional mass cytometry approach to characterize over 250 cell-specific functional responses in 18 innate and adaptive immune cell subsets exposed to 1G or simulated µG using the Rotating Wall Vessel.
[Scientific Reports]
Spatz, J. M., Fulford, M. H., Tsai, A., Gaudilliere, D., Hedou, J., Ganio, E., Angst, M., Aghaeepour, N., & Gaudilliere, B. (2021). Human immune system adaptations to simulated microgravity revealed by single-cell mass cytometry. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11872. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90458-2 Cite
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The Combination of Cudc-907 and Gilteritinib Shows Promising In Vitro and In Vivo Antileukemic Activity against FLT3-Itd AML

Investigators showed that gilteritinib and CUDC-907, a dual inhibitor of PI3K and histone deacetylases, synergistically induced apoptosis in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and primary patient samples and had striking in vivo efficacy.
[Blood Cancer Journal]
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Oxytocin Receptor Induces Mammary Tumorigenesis through Prolactin/P-STAT5 Pathway

Oxytocin receptor overexpression led to an activation of prolactin/p-STAT5 pathway and created a microenvironment that promoted mammary-specific tumorigenesis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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CD52 Is a Novel Target for the Treatment of FLT3-ITD-Mutated Myeloid Leukemia

To explore alternative therapeutics to internal tandem duplication (ITD) of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), researchers established a cellular model of monoallelic FLT3ITD/WT cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in a human myeloid leukemia cell line.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Alternative Regulatory Mechanism for the Maintenance of Bone Homeostasis via STAT5-Mediated Regulation of the Differentiation of BMSCs Into Adipocytes

Researchers generated adipocyte-specific Stat5 conditional knockout mice to investigate the role of STAT5 in the adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).
[Experimental & Molecular Medicine]
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A Novel Dual HDAC and HSP90 Inhibitor, MPT0G449, Downregulates Oncogenic Pathways in Human Acute Leukemia In Vitro and In Vivo

Scientists suggested that the dual inhibition of HDAC and HSP90 could suppress the expression of oncogenic pathways in acute leukemia, and MPT0G449 represented a novel therapeutic for anticancer treatment.
[Oncogenesis]
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A Distal Foxp3 Enhancer Enables Interleukin-2 Dependent Thymic Treg Cell Lineage Commitment for Robust Immune Tolerance

The authors report that IL-2 – STAT5 signaling converged on an enhancer during Foxp3 induction.
[Immunity]
Dikiy, S., Li, J., Bai, L., Jiang, M., Janke, L., Zong, X., Hao, X., Hoyos, B., Wang, Z.-M., Xu, B., Fan, Y., Rudensky, A. Y., & Feng, Y. (2021). A distal Foxp3 enhancer enables interleukin-2 dependent thymic Treg cell lineage commitment for robust immune tolerance. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.03.020 Cite
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The Ubiquitin Ligase MDM2 Sustains STAT5 Stability to Control T Cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity

Scientists report that mice with MDM2 deficiency in T cells exhibit accelerated tumor progression and a decrease in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cell survival and function.
[Nature Immunology]
Zhou, J., Kryczek, I., Li, S., Li, X., Aguilar, A., Wei, S., Grove, S., Vatan, L., Yu, J., Yan, Y., Liao, P., Lin, H., Li, J., Li, G., Du, W., Wang, W., Lang, X., Wang, W., Wang, S., & Zou, W. (2021). The ubiquitin ligase MDM2 sustains STAT5 stability to control T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00888-3 Cite
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Identification of Human Immune Cell Subtypes Most Responsive to IL-1β–Induced Inflammatory Signaling Using Mass Cytometry

Researchers identified effector memory CD4+ T cells and CD4−CD8low/−CD161+ T cells, specifically those positive for the chemokine receptor CCR6, as the circulating immune subtypes with the greatest response to IL-1β.
[Science Signaling]
Kothari, H., Williams, C. M., McSkimming, C., Drago, F., Marshall, M. A., Garmey, J., Vigneshwar, M., Zunder, E. R., & McNamara, C. A. (2021). Identification of human immune cell subtypes most responsive to IL-1β–induced inflammatory signaling using mass cytometry. Science Signaling, 14(673). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abc5763 Cite
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High Proportion of Terminally Differentiated Regulatory T Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Scientists compared the frequencies of different regulatory T cell subtypes in healthy controls as well as in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation patients with or without chronic graft-versus-host disease.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Ritacco, C., Ehx, G., Grégoire, C., Daulne, C., Willems, E., Servais, S., Beguin, Y., & Baron, F. (2021). High proportion of terminally differentiated regulatory T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01221-0 Cite
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Signal-Transducing Adaptor Protein-2 Delays Recovery of B Lineage Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stress

The authors exploited gene targeted and transgenic mice, and demonstrated that signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 was not required under normal, steady-state conditions.
[Haematologica]
Ichii, M., Oritani, K., Toda, J., Saito, H., Shi, H., Shibayama, H., Motooka, D., Kitai, Y., Muromoto, R., Kashiwakura, J., Saitoh, K., Okuzaki, D., Matsuda, T., & Kanakura, Y. (2021). Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 delays recovery of B lineage lymphocytes during hematopoietic stress. Haematologica, 106(2), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.225573 Cite
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