Generation of Knockout Rabbits with X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (X-SCID) Using CRISPR/Cas9

X-SCID rabbits presented immunodeficient phenotypes including the loss of T and B cells and hypoplasia of the thymus.
[Scientific Reports]
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PD-L1 Expression by Dendritic Cells Is a Key Regulator of T-Cell Immunity in Cancer

Investigators demonstrated that dendritic cells represented a critical source of PD-L1, despite being vastly outnumbered by PD-L1+ macrophages.
[Nature Cancer]
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Tet2 and Tet3 in B Cells Are Required to Repress CD86 and Prevent Autoimmunity

The authors report that deficiency of ten–eleven translocation (Tet) DNA demethylase family members Tet2 and Tet3 in B cells led to hyperactivation of B and T cells, autoantibody production and lupus-like disease in mice.
[Nature Immunology]
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Evidence for a Role of RUNX1 as Recombinase Cofactor for TCRβ Rearrangements and Pathological Deletions in ETV6-RUNX1 ALL

Scientists employed a RUNX1 knock-out mouse model and demonstrate by deep TCRβ sequencing, immunostaining and chromatin immunoprecipitation that RUNX1 binds to the initiation site of TCRβ rearrangement and its homozygous inactivation induced severe structural changes of the rearranged TCRβ gene, whereas heterozygous inactivation had almost no impact.
[Scientific Reports]
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Protein Kinase C Theta Modulates PCMT1 through hnRNPL to Regulate FOXP3 Stability in Regulatory T Cells

Scientists explored how using a synthetic cell-penetrating peptide mimic for intracellular anti-protein kinase C theta delivery fine-tuned differentiation of induced regulatory T cells, through its differential effects on RNA processing.
[Molecular Therapy]
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The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis

Investigators report that periodontal inflammation exacerbates gut inflammation in vivo. Periodontitis led to expansion of oral pathobionts, including Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, in the oral cavity.
[Cell]
The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis: Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)30681-4 Cite
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FOXO1 Promotes HIV Latency by Suppressing ER Stress in T Cells

Researchers report that, in resting T cells, FOXO1 inhibition impaired autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating two associated transcription factors: activating transcription factor 4 and nuclear factor of activated T cells.
[Nature Microbiology]
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Downregulation of HLA-I by the Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Mc080 Impacts NK-Cell Recognition and Promotes CD8+ T-Cell Evasion

MC080, but not MC033, downregulated cell-surface expression of endogenous classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I and non-classical HLA-E by a transporter associated with antigen processing-independent mechanism.
[Journal of General Virology]
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Mapping of Human Thymopoiesis Reveals Lineage Specification Trajectories and a Commitment Spectrum in T Cell Development

Scientists used single-cell RNA sequencing to interrogate the rare CD34+ progenitor and the more differentiated CD34 fractions in the human postnatal thymus.
[Immunity]
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Intratumoral Immune Activation with TLR4 Agonist Synergizes with Effector T Cells to Eradicate Established Murine Tumors

Scientists combined intratumoral administration of the synthetic toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A with either active vaccination or adoptive transfer of tumor-specific CD8 T cells to mice bearing established melanomas.
[Npj Vaccines]
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Inosine Is an Alternative Carbon Source for CD8+-T-Cell Function under Glucose Restriction

Scientists showed that effector T cells could utilize inosine, as an alternative substrate, to support cell growth and function in the absence of glucose in vitro. T cells metabolized inosine into hypoxanthine and phosphorylated ribose by purine nucleoside phosphorylase.
[Nature Metabolism]
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Ligand-Induced Degradation of a CAR Permits Reversible Remote Control of CAR T Cell Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

The authors created a chimeric antigen-receptor (CAR) that was capable of on-demand downregulation by fusing the CAR to a previously developed ligand-induced degradation domain. Addition of a small molecule ligand triggered exposure of a cryptic degron within the ligand-induced degradation domain (LID), resulting in proteasomal degradation of the CAR-LID fusion protein and loss of CAR on the surface of T cells.
[Molecular Therapy]
Ligand-induced degradation of a CAR permits reversible remote control of CAR T cell activity in vitro and in vivo: Molecular Therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/molecular-therapy-family/molecular-therapy/fulltext/S1525-0016(20)30294-X Cite
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