Human MAIT Cell Cytolytic Effector Proteins Synergize to Overcome Carbapenem Resistance in Escherichia coli

Scientists showed that mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells mediate MR1-restricted antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli clinical strains in a manner dependent on the activity of cytolytic proteins but independent of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or induction of apoptosis in infected cells.
[PLoS Biology]
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T-Cell Responses following Natural Influenza Infection or Vaccination in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Investigators evaluated the CD4+ and CD8+ responses to influenza A and B infection in a cohort of solid organ transplant patients.
[Scientific Reports]
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Peripherally Induced Brain Tissue–Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Mediate Protection against CNS Infection

Researchers showed that peripheral infections generated antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cells in the brain that adopted a unique tissue resident memory signature.
[Nature Immunology]
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Generation of Knockout Rabbits with X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (X-SCID) Using CRISPR/Cas9

X-SCID rabbits presented immunodeficient phenotypes including the loss of T and B cells and hypoplasia of the thymus.
[Scientific Reports]
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PD-L1 Expression by Dendritic Cells Is a Key Regulator of T-Cell Immunity in Cancer

Investigators demonstrated that dendritic cells represented a critical source of PD-L1, despite being vastly outnumbered by PD-L1+ macrophages.
[Nature Cancer]
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Tet2 and Tet3 in B Cells Are Required to Repress CD86 and Prevent Autoimmunity

The authors report that deficiency of ten–eleven translocation (Tet) DNA demethylase family members Tet2 and Tet3 in B cells led to hyperactivation of B and T cells, autoantibody production and lupus-like disease in mice.
[Nature Immunology]
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Evidence for a Role of RUNX1 as Recombinase Cofactor for TCRβ Rearrangements and Pathological Deletions in ETV6-RUNX1 ALL

Scientists employed a RUNX1 knock-out mouse model and demonstrate by deep TCRβ sequencing, immunostaining and chromatin immunoprecipitation that RUNX1 binds to the initiation site of TCRβ rearrangement and its homozygous inactivation induced severe structural changes of the rearranged TCRβ gene, whereas heterozygous inactivation had almost no impact.
[Scientific Reports]
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Protein Kinase C Theta Modulates PCMT1 through hnRNPL to Regulate FOXP3 Stability in Regulatory T Cells

Scientists explored how using a synthetic cell-penetrating peptide mimic for intracellular anti-protein kinase C theta delivery fine-tuned differentiation of induced regulatory T cells, through its differential effects on RNA processing.
[Molecular Therapy]
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The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis

Investigators report that periodontal inflammation exacerbates gut inflammation in vivo. Periodontitis led to expansion of oral pathobionts, including Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, in the oral cavity.
[Cell]
The Intermucosal Connection between the Mouth and Gut in Commensal Pathobiont-Driven Colitis: Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)30681-4 Cite
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FOXO1 Promotes HIV Latency by Suppressing ER Stress in T Cells

Researchers report that, in resting T cells, FOXO1 inhibition impaired autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating two associated transcription factors: activating transcription factor 4 and nuclear factor of activated T cells.
[Nature Microbiology]
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Downregulation of HLA-I by the Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Mc080 Impacts NK-Cell Recognition and Promotes CD8+ T-Cell Evasion

MC080, but not MC033, downregulated cell-surface expression of endogenous classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I and non-classical HLA-E by a transporter associated with antigen processing-independent mechanism.
[Journal of General Virology]
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