Scientists designed an ultrafast, low-temperature, and universal self-assembly route to integrate immunology-associated large molecules into metal-organic-framework-gated mesoporous silica as cancer vaccines.
Investigators showed that transient glucose restriction in activated CD8+ effector T cells metabolically primed effector functions and enhanced tumor clearance in mice.
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Klein Geltink, R. I., Edwards-Hicks, J., Apostolova, P., O’Sullivan, D., Sanin, D. E., Patterson, A. E., Puleston, D. J., Ligthart, N. A. M., Buescher, J. M., Grzes, K. M., Kabat, A. M., Stanczak, M., Curtis, J. D., Hässler, F., Uhl, F. M., Fabri, M., Zeiser, R., Pearce, E. J., & Pearce, E. L. (2020). Metabolic conditioning of CD8 + effector T cells for adoptive cell therapy. Nature Metabolism, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-0256-z Cite
Scientists investigated the epigenetic regulation of promoters and gene bodies and their effect on the tumor microenvironment composition of cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and spindle cell melanomas.
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Vougiouklakis, T., Aung, P. P., Vasudevaraja, V., Prieto, V. G., Torres-Cabala, C. A., Sulman, E. P., Snuderl, M., & Jour, G. (2020). Correlative study of epigenetic regulation of tumor microenvironment in spindle cell melanomas and cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12996. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69787-1 Cite
Investigators demonstrated the impact of donor type on overall results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for very-high risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with worse results when using mismatched donor stem cell source.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
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Dalle, J.-H., Balduzzi, A., Bader, P., Pieczonka, A., Yaniv, I., Lankester, A., Bierings, M., Yesilipek, A., Sedlacek, P., Ifversen, M., Svec, P., Toporski, J., Gungor, T., Wachowiak, J., Glogova, E., Poetschger, U., & Peters, C. (2020). The impact of donor type on the outcome of pediatric patients with very high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01014-x Cite
Targeting melanosomal proteins or oncogenic CDK4R24C by adoptive cell transfer of the same epitope-specific CD8+ T cells revealed diverse genetic and non-genetic immune escape mechanisms.
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Effern, M., Glodde, N., Braun, M., Liebing, J., Boll, H. N., Yong, M., Bawden, E., Hinze, D., Boorn-Konijnenberg, D. van den, Daoud, M., Aymans, P., Landsberg, J., Smyth, M. J., Flatz, L., Tüting, T., Bald, T., Gebhardt, T., & Hölzel, M. (2020). Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.07.007 Cite
As miR-382 was observed to be downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines, researchers found that overexpression of miR-382 increased the sensitivity of HCC cells to γδ T cells.
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Chen, Z., Zheng, Z., Feng, L., Huo, Z., Huang, L., Fu, M., Chen, Q., Ke, Y., Yang, J., & Hou, B. (2020). Overexpression of miR-382 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to γδ T cells through inhibiting the expression of c-FLIP. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.07.012 Cite
Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells were able to delay the onset of collagen-induced arthritis, suppress the ongoing clinical and histopathological signs, decrease serum levels of TNF-α and anti-collagen type II, and downregulate the autoreactive T cells as etanercept.
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El-Gendy, H., Hawass, S. E.-D., Awad, M., Mohsen, M. A., Amin, M., Abdalla, H. A., Fouad, S., & Lotfy, A. (2020). Comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells and etanercept as immunomodulatory agents in rat model of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunologic Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09132-w Cite
Investigators analyzed the apoptosis-inducing effect of high dose in vitro dexamethasone treatment in mouse thymic- and splenic Tregs and CD4+ T cells.
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Investigators highlight recent strategies to improve chimeric antigen therapy (CAR)-T cell therapy by engineering the CAR protein, T cells, and the interaction between T cells and other components in the tumor microenvironment.
Researchers generated and characterized traceable CAR T cells and examined potential negative effects of radionuclide reporter use. They applied the platform to two different triple-negative breast cancer models and unexpectedly observed pronounced differences in CAR-T tumor retention by PET/computed tomography and confirmed data ex vivo.
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Volpe, A., Lang, C., Lim, L., Man, F., Kurtys, E., Ashmore-Harris, C., Johnson, P., Skourti, E., Rosales, R. T. M. de, & Fruhwirth, G. O. (2020). Spatiotemporal PET Imaging Reveals Differences in CAR-T Tumor Retention in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Models. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.06.028 Cite
The authors used a post-test control group design. MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord blood and characterized according to their surface antigen expression and multilineage differentiation capacities.
[Journal of the Formosan Medical Association]
Renal cell carcinoma is considered to be an immunogenic tumor but is known to mediate immune dysfunction in large part by eliciting the infiltration of immune-inhibitory cells, such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, into the tumor microenvironment.
[Nature Reviews Nephrology]