A Nanoscale Metal Organic Frameworks-Based Vaccine Synergises with PD-1 Blockade to Potentiate Anti-Tumor Immunity

Scientists designed an ultrafast, low-temperature, and universal self-assembly route to integrate immunology-associated large molecules into metal-organic-framework-gated mesoporous silica as cancer vaccines.
[Nature Communications]
Li, X., Wang, X., Ito, A., & Tsuji, N. M. (2020). A nanoscale metal organic frameworks-based vaccine synergises with PD-1 blockade to potentiate anti-tumour immunity. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3858. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17637-z Cite
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Metabolic Conditioning of CD8+ Effector T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy

Investigators showed that transient glucose restriction in activated CD8+ effector T cells metabolically primed effector functions and enhanced tumor clearance in mice.
[Nature Metabolism]
Klein Geltink, R. I., Edwards-Hicks, J., Apostolova, P., O’Sullivan, D., Sanin, D. E., Patterson, A. E., Puleston, D. J., Ligthart, N. A. M., Buescher, J. M., Grzes, K. M., Kabat, A. M., Stanczak, M., Curtis, J. D., Hässler, F., Uhl, F. M., Fabri, M., Zeiser, R., Pearce, E. J., & Pearce, E. L. (2020). Metabolic conditioning of CD8 + effector T cells for adoptive cell therapy. Nature Metabolism, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-0256-z Cite
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Correlative Study of Epigenetic Regulation of Tumor Microenvironment in Spindle Cell Melanomas and Cutaneous Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

Scientists investigated the epigenetic regulation of promoters and gene bodies and their effect on the tumor microenvironment composition of cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and spindle cell melanomas.
[Scientific Reports]
Vougiouklakis, T., Aung, P. P., Vasudevaraja, V., Prieto, V. G., Torres-Cabala, C. A., Sulman, E. P., Snuderl, M., & Jour, G. (2020). Correlative study of epigenetic regulation of tumor microenvironment in spindle cell melanomas and cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12996. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69787-1 Cite
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The Impact of Donor Type on the Outcome of Pediatric Patients with Very High Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. A Study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG

Investigators demonstrated the impact of donor type on overall results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for very-high risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with worse results when using mismatched donor stem cell source.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Dalle, J.-H., Balduzzi, A., Bader, P., Pieczonka, A., Yaniv, I., Lankester, A., Bierings, M., Yesilipek, A., Sedlacek, P., Ifversen, M., Svec, P., Toporski, J., Gungor, T., Wachowiak, J., Glogova, E., Poetschger, U., & Peters, C. (2020). The impact of donor type on the outcome of pediatric patients with very high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01014-x Cite
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Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Targeting melanosomal proteins or oncogenic CDK4R24C by adoptive cell transfer of the same epitope-specific CD8+ T cells revealed diverse genetic and non-genetic immune escape mechanisms.
[Immunity]
Effern, M., Glodde, N., Braun, M., Liebing, J., Boll, H. N., Yong, M., Bawden, E., Hinze, D., Boorn-Konijnenberg, D. van den, Daoud, M., Aymans, P., Landsberg, J., Smyth, M. J., Flatz, L., Tüting, T., Bald, T., Gebhardt, T., & Hölzel, M. (2020). Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.07.007 Cite
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Overexpression of miR-382 Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to γδ T Cells through Inhibiting the Expression of C-Flip

As miR-382 was observed to be downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines, researchers found that overexpression of miR-382 increased the sensitivity of HCC cells to γδ T cells.
[Molecular Therapy-Oncolytics]
Chen, Z., Zheng, Z., Feng, L., Huo, Z., Huang, L., Fu, M., Chen, Q., Ke, Y., Yang, J., & Hou, B. (2020). Overexpression of miR-382 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to γδ T cells through inhibiting the expression of c-FLIP. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.07.012 Cite
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Comparative Study between Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Etanercept as Immunomodulatory Agents in Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells were able to delay the onset of collagen-induced arthritis, suppress the ongoing clinical and histopathological signs, decrease serum levels of TNF-α and anti-collagen type II, and downregulate the autoreactive T cells as etanercept.
[Immunologic Research]
El-Gendy, H., Hawass, S. E.-D., Awad, M., Mohsen, M. A., Amin, M., Abdalla, H. A., Fouad, S., & Lotfy, A. (2020). Comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells and etanercept as immunomodulatory agents in rat model of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunologic Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09132-w Cite
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Regulatory T Cells Are Less Sensitive to Glucocorticoid Hormone Induced Apoptosis than CD4+ T Cells

Investigators analyzed the apoptosis-inducing effect of high dose in vitro dexamethasone treatment in mouse thymic- and splenic Tregs and CD4+ T cells.
[Apoptosis]
Prenek, L., Litvai, T., Balázs, N., Kugyelka, R., Boldizsár, F., Najbauer, J., Németh, P., & Berki, T. (2020). Regulatory T cells are less sensitive to glucocorticoid hormone induced apoptosis than CD4+ T cells. Apoptosis. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10495-020-01629-x Cite
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Engineering CAR-T Cells for Next-Generation Cancer Therapy

Investigators highlight recent strategies to improve chimeric antigen therapy (CAR)-T cell therapy by engineering the CAR protein, T cells, and the interaction between T cells and other components in the tumor microenvironment.
[Cancer Cell]
Hong, M., Clubb, J. D., & Chen, Y. Y. (2020). Engineering CAR-T Cells for Next-Generation Cancer Therapy. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.07.005 Cite
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Spatiotemporal PET Imaging Reveals Differences in CAR-T Tumor Retention in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Models

Researchers generated and characterized traceable CAR T cells and examined potential negative effects of radionuclide reporter use. They applied the platform to two different triple-negative breast cancer models and unexpectedly observed pronounced differences in CAR-T tumor retention by PET/computed tomography and confirmed data ex vivo.
[Molecular Therapy]
Volpe, A., Lang, C., Lim, L., Man, F., Kurtys, E., Ashmore-Harris, C., Johnson, P., Skourti, E., Rosales, R. T. M. de, & Fruhwirth, G. O. (2020). Spatiotemporal PET Imaging Reveals Differences in CAR-T Tumor Retention in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Models. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.06.028 Cite
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MSCs-Released TGFβ1 Generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-Reg Cells of Human SLE PBMC

The authors used a post-test control group design. MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord blood and characterized according to their surface antigen expression and multilineage differentiation capacities.
[Journal of the Formosan Medical Association]
Darlan, D. M., Munir, D., Putra, A., & Jusuf, N. K. (2020). MSCs-released TGFβ1 generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-reg cells of human SLE PBMC. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.06.028 Cite
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The Immunology of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is considered to be an immunogenic tumor but is known to mediate immune dysfunction in large part by eliciting the infiltration of immune-inhibitory cells, such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, into the tumor microenvironment.
[Nature Reviews Nephrology]
Díaz-Montero, C. M., Rini, B. I., & Finke, J. H. (2020). The immunology of renal cell carcinoma. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-020-0316-3 Cite
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