Heightened Resistance To Host Type 1 Interferons Characterizes HIV-1 at Transmission and After Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption

Researchers characterized the IFN-I sensitivity of 500 clonally derived HIV-1 isolates from the plasma and CD4+ T cells of 26 individuals sampled longitudinally after transmission or after antiretroviral therapy and analytical treatment interruption.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Gondim, M. V. P., Sherrill-Mix, S., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Russell, R. M., Trimboli, S., Smith, A. G., Li, Y., Liu, W., Avitto, A. N., DeVoto, J. C., Connell, J., Fenton-May, A. E., Pellegrino, P., Williams, I., Papasavvas, E., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Salantes, D. B., Mampe, F., Monroy, M. A., … Hahn, B. H. (2021). Heightened resistance to host type 1 interferons characterizes HIV-1 at transmission and after antiretroviral therapy interruption. Science Translational Medicine, 13(576). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8179 Cite
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Low-Dose Decitabine Priming Endows CAR T Cells with Enhanced and Persistent Antitumor Potential via Epigenetic Reprogramming

Anti-tumor activities, cytokine production, and proliferation were enhanced in decitabine-treated chimeric antigen receptor T cells both in vitro and in vivo.
[Nature Communications]
Low-dose decitabine priming endows CAR T cells with enhanced and persistent antitumour potential via epigenetic reprogramming | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20696-x Cite
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Adoptive Transfer of JC Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Scientists analyzed the safety and evaluate preliminary efficacy of polyomavirus JC-specific T cell therapy in a cohort of hematological patients with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.
[Annals of Neurology]
Berzero, G., Basso, S., Stoppini, L., Palermo, A., Pichiecchio, A., Paoletti, M., Lucev, F., Gerevini, S., Rossi, A., Vegezzi, E., Diamanti, L., Bini, P., Gastaldi, M., Delbue, S., Perotti, C., Seminari, E., Faraci, M., Luppi, M., Baldanti, F., … Comoli, P. (n.d.). Adoptive transfer of JC virus-specific T lymphocytes for the treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. Annals of Neurology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.26020 Cite
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Gut CD4+ T Cell Phenotypes Are a Continuum Molded by Microbes, Not by TH Archetypes

To determine the states that CD4+ effector lymphocytes (Teff) cells actually adopt in frontline tissues in vivo, scientists applied single-cell transcriptome and chromatin analyses to colonic Teff cells in germ-free or conventional mice
[Nature Immunology]
Kiner, E., Willie, E., Vijaykumar, B., Chowdhary, K., Schmutz, H., Chandler, J., Schnell, A., Thakore, P. I., LeGros, G., Mostafavi, S., Mathis, D., & Benoist, C. (2021). Gut CD4 + T cell phenotypes are a continuum molded by microbes, not by T H archetypes. Nature Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00836-7 Cite
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Droplet-Based mRNA Sequencing of Fixed and Permeabilized Cells by CLInt-Seq Allows for Antigen-Specific TCR Cloning

Scientists applied CLInt-Seq to identify T cell receptors reactive with peptide epitopes of prostatic acid phosphatase, which has been pursued by multiple groups as an immunotherapeutic target in prostate cancer.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Nesterenko, P. A., McLaughlin, J., Cheng, D., Bangayan, N. J., Sojo, G. B., Seet, C. S., Qin, Y., Mao, Z., Obusan, M. B., Phillips, J. W., & Witte, O. N. (2021). Droplet-based mRNA sequencing of fixed and permeabilized cells by CLInt-seq allows for antigen-specific TCR cloning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(3). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021190118 Cite
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An Immunohistochemical Study of Lymphatic Elements in the Human Brain

Lymphatic marker-positive cells were present in the perivascular space, the walls of small and large arteries and veins, the media of large vessels along smooth muscle cell membranes, and the vascular adventitia.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Mezey, É., Szalayova, I., Hogden, C. T., Brady, A., Dósa, Á., Sótonyi, P., & Palkovits, M. (2021). An immunohistochemical study of lymphatic elements in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(3). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002574118 Cite
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NantKwest, ImmunityBio Announce Positive Interim Data on Survival Rates in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Trials

NantKwest, Inc. and ImmunityBio, Inc. announced early interim results of its PD-L1 t-haNK protocols showing median survival rates more than doubled that of the historic rate in patients with advanced metastatic pancreatic cancer for which no other FDA-approved treatment exists.
[NantKwest, Inc.]
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AvantGen Announces Licensing of Its Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies to IGM Biosciences for COVID-19 Therapy Development

AvantGen, Inc. announced licensing of a panel of its anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody clones to IGM Biosciences for COVID-19 therapy development.
[AvantGen, Inc. (BusinessWire, Inc)]
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The Thymus and the Science of Self

The authors discuss the evidence that the thymus serves as a unique lymphoid organ able to instruct T cells to recognize and be tolerant to harmless self before adopting the capacity to defend the body against potentially injurious non-self-antigens presented in the context of different challenges from infections to exposure to malignant cells.
[Seminars in Immunopathology]
Geenen, V. (2021). The thymus and the science of self. Seminars in Immunopathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-020-00831-y Cite
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Beyond Conventional Immune-Checkpoint Inhibition — Novel Immunotherapies for Renal Cell Carcinoma

Using the structure provided by the well-described cancer–immunity cycle, scientists outline the key steps required for a successful antitumour immune response in the context of renal cell carcinoma, and describe the development of promising new immunotherapies within the context of this framework.
[Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology]
Braun, D. A., Bakouny, Z., Hirsch, L., Flippot, R., Van Allen, E. M., Wu, C. J., & Choueiri, T. K. (2021). Beyond conventional immune-checkpoint inhibition — novel immunotherapies for renal cell carcinoma. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-00455-z Cite
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RORα Is a Critical Checkpoint for T Cell and ILC2 Commitment in the Embryonic Thymus

The authors demonstrated that functional innate lymphoid cells cells could arise in the embryonic thymus from shared T cell precursors, preceding the emergence of CD4+CD8+ T cells.
[Nature Immunology]
Ferreira, A. C. F., Szeto, A. C. H., Heycock, M. W. D., Clark, P. A., Walker, J. A., Crisp, A., Barlow, J. L., Kitching, S., Lim, A., Gogoi, M., Berks, R., Daly, M., Jolin, H. E., & McKenzie, A. N. J. (2021). RORα is a critical checkpoint for T cell and ILC2 commitment in the embryonic thymus. Nature Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00833-w Cite
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