Alternative Pathways for the Development of Lymphoid Structures in Humans

In humans, JAK3 and γc deficiencies resulted in severe combined immunodeficiency characterized by an absence of T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells, and presumably lymphoid tissue inducer cells.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Berteloot, L., Molina, T. J., Bruneau, J., Picard, C., Barlogis, V., Secq, V., Abdo, C., Boddaert, N., Griscelli, C., Neven, B., & Fischer, A. (2021). Alternative pathways for the development of lymphoid structures in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(29). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2108082118 Cite
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Non-Terminally Exhausted Tumor-Resident Memory HBV-Specific T Cell Responses Correlate with Relapse-Free Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Using highly multiplexed peptide-MHC tetramer staining of unexpanded cells from blood, liver, and tumor tissues from 46 HCC patients, researchers detected 91 different antigen-specific CD8+ T cell populations targeting HBV, neoantigen, tumor-associated, and disease-unrelated antigens.
[Immunity]
Cheng, Y., Gunasegaran, B., Singh, H. D., Dutertre, C.-A., Loh, C. Y., Lim, J. Q., Crawford, J. C., Lee, H. K., Zhang, X., Lee, B., Becht, E., Lim, W. J., Yeong, J., Chan, C. Y., Chung, A., Goh, B. K. P., Chow, P. K. H., Chan, J. K. Y., Ginhoux, F., … Newell, E. W. (2021). Non-terminally exhausted tumor-resident memory HBV-specific T cell responses correlate with relapse-free survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.06.013 Cite
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Adenovirus Vector Vaccination Reprograms Pulmonary Fibroblastic Niches to Support Protective Inflating Memory CD8+ T Cells

The authors showed that clinically applied adenovirus vectors preferentially targeted fibroblastic stromal cells in cultured human tissues.
[Nature Immunology]
Cupovic, J., Ring, S. S., Onder, L., Colston, J. M., Lütge, M., Cheng, H.-W., De Martin, A., Provine, N. M., Flatz, L., Oxenius, A., Scandella, E., Krebs, P., Engeler, D., Klenerman, P., & Ludewig, B. (2021). Adenovirus vector vaccination reprograms pulmonary fibroblastic niches to support protective inflating memory CD8+ T cells. Nature Immunology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00969-3 Cite
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Single-Cell Transcriptome and TCR Profiling Reveal Activated and Expanded T Cell Populations in Parkinson’s Disease

Scientists performed single-cell transcriptome and TCR sequencing, and conducted integrative analyses to decode composition, function and lineage relationship of T cells in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease.
[Cell Discovery]
Wang, P., Yao, L., Luo, M., Zhou, W., Jin, X., Xu, Z., Yan, S., Li, Y., Xu, C., Cheng, R., Huang, Y., Lin, X., Ma, K., Cao, H., Liu, H., Xue, G., Han, F., Nie, H., & Jiang, Q. (2021). Single-cell transcriptome and TCR profiling reveal activated and expanded T cell populations in Parkinson’s disease. Cell Discovery, 7(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00280-3 Cite
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CD40 Stimulation as a Molecular Adjuvant for Cancer Vaccines and Other Immunotherapies

The rationale and early immunobiology of CD40 as a master regulator of dendritic cell activation is reviewed, with further contextualization and appreciation for the role of CD40 stimulation not only in cancer vaccines but also in other contemporary immune-oncology approaches.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Bullock, T. N. J. (2021). CD40 stimulation as a molecular adjuvant for cancer vaccines and other immunotherapies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00734-4 Cite
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Generation of Glucocorticoid-Resistant SARS-CoV-2 T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy

To assess the mechanisms contributing to protection, investigators analyzed humoral and T cell responses three weeks after a single BNT162b2 dose.
[Cell Host & Microbe]
Basar, R., Uprety, N., Ensley, E., Daher, M., Klein, K., Martinez, F., Aung, F., Shanley, M., Hu, B., Gokdemir, E., Cortes, A. K. N., Mendt, M., Silva, F. R., Acharya, S., Laskowski, T., Muniz-Feliciano, L., Banerjee, P. P., Li, Y., Li, S., … Rezvani, K. (2021). Generation of glucocorticoid-resistant SARS-CoV-2 T cells for adoptive cell therapy. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109432 Cite
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BATF Regulates Progenitor to Cytolytic Effector CD8+ T Cell Transition during Chronic Viral Infection

The authors demonstrated that CX3CR1+ effector cells bear a striking similarity to short-lived effector cells during acute infection.
[Nature Immunology]
Chen, Y., Zander, R. A., Wu, X., Schauder, D. M., Kasmani, M. Y., Shen, J., Zheng, S., Burns, R., Taparowsky, E. J., & Cui, W. (2021). BATF regulates progenitor to cytolytic effector CD8+ T cell transition during chronic viral infection. Nature Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00965-7 Cite
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Progress and Challenges of Immunotherapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Investigators review the current progress targeting different immune checkpoints in several-lines treatment for TNBC, including programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 inhibitors, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 inhibitor, and other novel immunotherapeutic approaches.
[Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Reviews On Cancer]
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Generation of Glucocorticoid-Resistant SARS-CoV-2 T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy

Scientists expanded SARS-CoV-2 T cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions.
[Cell Reports]
Basar, R., Uprety, N., Ensley, E., Daher, M., Klein, K., Martinez, F., Aung, F., Shanley, M., Hu, B., Gokdemir, E., Cortes, A. K. N., Mendt, M., Silva, F. R., Acharya, S., Laskowski, T., Muniz-Feliciano, L., Banerjee, P. P., Li, Y., Li, S., … Rezvani, K. (2021). Generation of glucocorticoid-resistant SARS-CoV-2 T cells for adoptive cell therapy. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109432 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Cellular Heterogeneity of Mouse Carotid Artery under Disturbed Flow

Scientists investigated the heterogeneity of vascular cell populations under disturbed blood flow (d-flow). A d-flow-induced Spp1hi vascular smooth muscle cell subpopulation appeared to be endowed with osteoblast differentiation, suggesting a role in arterial stiffness.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Long-Term Activity of Tandem CD19/CD20 CAR Therapy in Refractory/Relapsed B-Cell Lymphoma: A Single-Arm, Phase I–II Trial

In this open-label, single-arm Phase I/II trial, 87 patients with recurrent/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma received an infusion at doses of 0.5 × 106–8 × 106 TanCAR7 T cells per kilogram of body weight after conditioning chemotherapy.
[Leukemia]
Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, Y., Tong, C., Wang, C., Guo, Y., Ti, D., Yang, Q., Qiao, S., Wu, Z., & Han, W. (2021). Long-term activity of tandem CD19/CD20 CAR therapy in refractory/relapsed B-cell lymphoma: a single-arm, phase 1–2 trial. Leukemia, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01345-8 Cite
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