HIV-1 Env Induces Pexophagy and an Oxidative Stress Leading to Uninfected CD4+ T Cell Death

Scientists demonstrated that envelope glycoproteins (Env)-induced oxidative stress was responsible for their death by apoptosis. Moreover, they report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in the control of oxidative stress, are targeted by Env-mediated autophagy.
[Autophagy]
Daussy, C. F., Galais, M., Pradel, B., Robert-Hebmann, V., Sagnier, S., Pattingre, S., Biard-Piechaczyk, M., & Espert, L. (2020). HIV-1 Env induces pexophagy and an oxidative stress leading to uninfected CD4+ T cell death. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1831814 Cite
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MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Researchers tested the antiviral potential of MAIT cells, and investigated their dynamic changes and regulating factors during chronic HBV infection.
[Hepatology]
MAIT Cell Dysregulation Correlates with Conjugated Bilirubin Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Liu - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31602 Cite
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Cancer Immunotherapy via Targeted TGF-β Signalling Blockade in TH Cells

Following the finding that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) suppresses T helper 2 (TH2)-cell-mediated cancer immunity, scientists showed that blocking TGF-β signalling in CD4+ T cells remodels the tumour microenvironment and restrains cancer progression.
[Nature]
Li, S., Liu, M., Do, M. H., Chou, C., Stamatiades, E. G., Nixon, B. G., Shi, W., Zhang, X., Li, P., Gao, S., Capistrano, K. J., Xu, H., Cheung, N.-K. V., & Li, M. O. (2020). Cancer immunotherapy via targeted TGF-β signalling blockade in T H cells. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2850-3 Cite
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TGF-β Suppresses Type 2 Immunity to Cancer

The authors showed that depletion of transforming growth factor-β receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, halts cancer progression as a result of tissue healing and remodeling of the blood vasculature, causing cancer cell hypoxia and death in distant avascular regions.
[Nature]
Liu, M., Kuo, F., Capistrano, K. J., Kang, D., Nixon, B. G., Shi, W., Chou, C., Do, M. H., Stamatiades, E. G., Gao, S., Li, S., Chen, Y., Hsieh, J. J., Hakimi, A. A., Taniuchi, I., Chan, T. A., & Li, M. O. (2020). TGF-β suppresses type 2 immunity to cancer. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2836-1 Cite
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Melanoma Stem Cell-Like Phenotype and Significant Suppression of Immune Response within a Tumor Are Regulated by TRIM28 Protein

TRIM28 high level related to higher melanoma stemness as measured with several distinct scores and TRIM28HIGH-expressing melanoma cell lines possess the greater potential of melanosphere formation.
[Cancers]
Czerwinska, P., Jaworska, A. M., Wlodarczyk, N. A., & Mackiewicz, A. A. (2020). Melanoma Stem Cell-Like Phenotype and Significant Suppression of Immune Response within a Tumor Are Regulated by TRIM28 Protein. Cancers, 12(10), 2998. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102998 Cite
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tPA Mobilizes Immune Cells that Exacerbate Hemorrhagic Transformation in Stroke

Scientists determined the impact of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on immune cells and investigated the association between observed immune alteration with hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients and in a rat model of embolic stroke.
[Circulation Research]
Shi Kaibin, Zou Ming, Jia Dong-mei, Shi Samuel, Yang Xiaoxia, Liu Qiang, Dong Jingfei, Sheth Kevin N, Wang Xiaoying, & Shi Fu-Dong. (n.d.). tPA Mobilizes Immune Cells that Exacerbate Hemorrhagic Transformation in Stroke. Circulation Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317596 Cite
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Abrogation of HLA Surface Expression Using CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing: A Step Toward Universal T Cell Therapy

Host rejection driven by HLA disparity in adoptively transferred allogeneic T cells remains a key obstacle to the universal donor T cell therapy. To evade donor HLA-mediated immune rejection, scientists attempted to eliminate T cell’s HLA through the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system.
[Scientific Reports]
Lee, J., Sheen, J. H., Lim, O., Lee, Y., Ryu, J., Shin, D., Kim, Y. Y., & Kim, M. (2020). Abrogation of HLA surface expression using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing: a step toward universal T cell therapy. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17753. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74772-9 Cite
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The Differential Immune Responses to COVID-19 in Peripheral and Lung Revealed by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing

Using single-cell RNA sequencing, researchers characterized the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected controls and COVID-19 patients and cells in paired broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
[Cell Discovery]
The differential immune responses to COVID-19 in peripheral and lung revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing | Cell Discovery. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-020-00225-2 Cite
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Naive CD8+ T Cells Expressing CD95 Increase Human Cardiovascular Disease Severity

Using mass cytometry, scientists uncovered a naive CD8+ T cell population expressing CD95 that was enriched in patients with high compared with low cardiovascular disease.
[Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology]
Padgett Lindsey E., Dinh Huy Q., Wu Runpei, Gaddis Dalia E., Araujo Daniel J., Winkels Holger, Nguyen Anh, McNamara Coleen A., & Hedrick Catherine C. (n.d.). Naive CD8+ T Cells Expressing CD95 Increase Human Cardiovascular Disease Severity. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 0(0), ATVBAHA.120.315106. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.315106 Cite
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Identification of Immune Landscape Signatures Associated with Clinical and Prognostic Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Investigators combined immune landscape signatures with hepatocellular carcinoma clinical and prognostic features to classify them into distinct subtypes. The immunogenomic profiles, stromal cell features and immune cell composition of the subtypes were then systematically analyzed.
[Aging]
Aging | Identification of immune landscape signatures associated with clinical and prognostic features of hepatocellular carcinoma - Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.aging-us.com/article/103977/text Cite
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Identification of a Distal Locus Enhancer Element That Controls Cell Type–Specific TNF and LTA Gene Expression in Human T Cells

Scientists showed that a highly conserved NFAT binding site within the distal noncoding element hHS-8 coordinately controlled TNF and LTA gene expression in human T cells.
[Journal of Immunology]
Jasenosky, L. D., Nambu, A., Tsytsykova, A. V., Ranjbar, S., Haridas, V., Kruidenier, L., Tough, D. F., & Goldfeld, A. E. (2020). Identification of a Distal Locus Enhancer Element That Controls Cell Type–Specific TNF and LTA Gene Expression in Human T Cells. The Journal of Immunology, 205(9), 2479–2488. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1901311 Cite
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