Microvesicles Released from Pneumolysin-Stimulated Lung Epithelial Cells Carry Mitochondrial Cargo and Suppress Neutrophil Oxidative Burst

we aim to characterize microvesicles shed from pneumolysin-stimulated alveolar epithelial cells and explore their contribution in mediating crosstalk with neutrophils.
[Scientific Reports]
Letsiou, E., Teixeira Alves, L. G., Fatykhova, D., Felten, M., Mitchell, T. J., Müller-Redetzky, H. C., Hocke, A. C., & Witzenrath, M. (2021). Microvesicles released from pneumolysin-stimulated lung epithelial cells carry mitochondrial cargo and suppress neutrophil oxidative burst. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9529. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88897-y Cite
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Pazopanib Ameliorates Acute Lung Injuries via Inhibition of MAP3K2 and MAP3K3

Researchers found that pazopanib ameliorated acute lung injury (ALI) manifestations and reduced mortality in mouse ALI models and reduced edema in human lung transplantation recipients.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Yuan, Q., Basit, A., Liang, W., Qu, R., Luan, Y., Ren, C., Li, A., Xu, X., Liu, X., Yang, C., Kuo, A., Pierce, R., Zhang, L., Turk, B., Hu, X., Li, F., Cui, W., Li, R., Huang, D., … Wu, D. (2021). Pazopanib ameliorates acute lung injuries via inhibition of MAP3K2 and MAP3K3. Science Translational Medicine, 13(591). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abc2499 Cite
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Lyophilized Powder of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Supernatant Attenuates Acute Lung Injury through the IL-6–P-STAT3–p63–JAG2 Pathway

Intratracheal bleomycin was used to induce acute lung injury in mice, and intratracheal MSCs in a supernatant lyophilized powder was administered as a treatment.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Peng, W., Chang, M., Wu, Y., Zhu, W., Tong, L., Zhang, G., Wang, Q., Liu, J., Zhu, X., Cheng, T., Li, Y., Chen, X., Weng, D., Liu, S., Zhang, H., Su, Y., Zhou, J., Li, H., & Song, Y. (2021). Lyophilized powder of mesenchymal stem cell supernatant attenuates acute lung injury through the IL-6–p-STAT3–p63–JAG2 pathway. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 216. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02276-y Cite
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Panaxydol Attenuates Ferroptosis against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

In vivo, the role of panaxydol (PX) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice was tested by determination of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema and ferroptosis. In vitro, BEAS-2B cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PX functions via determination of inflammation, ferroptosis and their relationship.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
Panaxydol attenuates ferroptosis against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-021-02745-1 Cite
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BMSC-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Regulating the GPRC5A–YAP Axis

Scientists explored the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BMSC)-derived exosomes against acute lung injury and the underlying mechanisms.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Mao, G., Gong, C., Wang, Z., Sun, M., Pei, Z., Meng, W., Cen, J., He, X., Lu, Y., Xu, Q., & Xiao, K. (2021). BMSC-derived exosomes ameliorate sulfur mustard-induced acute lung injury by regulating the GPRC5A–YAP axis. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00625-4 Cite
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Peter Lougheed Centre Joins the Phase II Trial of LSALT Peptide for the Treatment of Complications in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Arch Biopartners, Inc. announced that the Peter Lougheed Center in Calgary, Alberta has joined the Phase II trial of its lead drug LSALT peptide, targeting the prevention of acute lung injury, acute kidney injury, and other complications caused by inflammation in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe cases of COVID-19.
[Arch Biopartners, Inc.]
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Reticulocalbin 3 Deficiency in Alveolar Epithelium Attenuated LPSs-Induced ALI via NFκB Signaling

In vitro alveolar epithelial cells consistently exhibited a significant induction of reticulocalbin 3 accompanied with NFκB activation in response to LPS exposure.
[American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology]
Shi, X., An, X., Yang, L., Wu, Z., Zan, D., Li, Z., Pang, B., Chen, Y., Li, J., Tan, P., Ma, R. Z., Fang, Q., Ma, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). Reticulocalbin 3 deficiency in alveolar epithelium attenuated LPS-induced ALI via NFκB signaling. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00526.2020 Cite
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Akt‐Independent Effects of Triciribine on ACE2 Expression in Human Lung Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefits in Restricting SARS‐CoV2 Infection

Investigators tested the direct effect of triciribine on ACE2 expression in human bronchial (H441) and lung alveolar (A549) epithelial cells.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
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Hypoxic Preconditioning of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is an Effective Strategy for Treating Acute Lung Injury

When human umbilical cord MSCs were transplanted directly, only a minority of cells migrated toward damaged tissues. Moreover, their maintenance time was short, leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic results.
[Stem Cells and Development]
Wang, Y., Li, H., Li, X., Su, X., Xiao, H., & Yang, J. (2020). Hypoxic Preconditioning of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is an Effective Strategy for Treating Acute Lung Injury. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0174 Cite
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The HIV Protease Inhibitor Saquinavir Attenuates Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Promotes M2 Macrophage Polarization via Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

Scientists focused on the important role of macrophage polarization in cecal ligation puncture-mediated acute lung injury and determined the ability of saquinavir to maintain M2 over M1 phenotype partially through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Tong, Y., Yu, Z., Chen, Z., Zhang, R., Ding, X., Yang, X., Niu, X., Li, M., Zhang, L., Billiar, T. R., Pitt, B. R., & Li, Q. (2021). The HIV protease inhibitor Saquinavir attenuates sepsis-induced acute lung injury and promotes M2 macrophage polarization via targeting matrix metalloproteinase-9. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03320-0 Cite
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Circulating BMP9 Protects the Pulmonary Endothelium During Inflammation-induced Lung Injury in Mice

A bone morphogeneic protein 9 (BMP9)-neutralizing antibody was administrated to healthy adult mice and lung vasculature was examined. Potential mechanisms were delineated by transcript analysis in human lung endothelial cells.
[American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine]
Li, W., Long, L., Yang, X., Tong, Z., Southwood, M., King, R., Caruso, P., Upton, P. D., Yang, P., Bocobo, G. A., Nikolic, I., Higuera, A., Salmon, R. M., Jiang, H., Lodge, K. M., Hoenderdos, K., Baron, R. M., Yu, P. B., Condliffe, A. M., … Morrell, N. W. (2020). Circulating BMP9 Protects the Pulmonary Endothelium During Inflammation-induced Lung Injury in Mice. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202005-1761OC Cite
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