Scientists explored the in vitro actions and mechanisms of glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, a gut‐derived peptide, in human adipose‐derived MSCs isolated from omentum.
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Chen, X., He, X., Guo, Y., Liu, L., Li, H., Tan, J., Feng, W., Guan, H., Cao, X., Xiao, H., & Li, Y. (2021). Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide modifies adipose plasticity and promotes beige adipogenesis of human omental adipose-derived stem cells. The FASEB Journal, 35(5), e21534. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201903253R Cite
Knockdown strategies for EPHB2 were performed in prostate cancer cells to analyze the impact on the net lipid balance, proliferation, triacylglycerol-regulating proteins, effect on lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis, and intracellular localization of LDs.
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Morales, A., Greenberg, M., Nardi, F., Gil, V., Hayward, S. W., Crawford, S. E., & Franco, O. E. (2021). Loss of ephrin B2 receptor (EPHB2) sets lipid rheostat by regulating proteins DGAT1 and ATGL inducing lipid droplet storage in prostate cancer cells. Laboratory Investigation, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00583-9 Cite
Scientists investigated ten different properties of these cells cultured under 21% and 5% oxygen concentrations.
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Tomecka, E., Lech, W., Zychowicz, M., Sarnowska, A., Murzyn, M., Oldak, T., Domanska-Janik, K., Buzanska, L., & Rozwadowska, N. (2021). Assessment of the Neuroprotective and Stemness Properties of Human Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Variable (5% vs. 21%) Aerobic Conditions. Cells, 10(4), 717. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040717 Cite
The authors discuss the therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) secretome and its biomedical aspects related to immune-mediated conditions. Sources for MSC extraction, their migration and homing properties, therapeutic molecules released by MSCs, and the pathways and molecular mechanisms possibly involved in the exceptional immunoregulatory competence of MSCs are discussed.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Researchers established a stringent flow cytometric protocol for the prospective isolation of a CD73+ CD105+ CD271+ bone marrow (BM) stromal cell subpopulation from uncultivated cryopreserved BM of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia patients as well as age-matched healthy donors.
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Weickert, M.-T., Hecker, J. S., Buck, M. C., Schreck, C., Rivière, J., Schiemann, M., Schallmoser, K., Bassermann, F., Strunk, D., Oostendorp, R. A. J., & Götze, K. S. (2021). Bone marrow stromal cells from MDS and AML patients show increased adipogenic potential with reduced Delta-like-1 expression. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 5944. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85122-8 Cite
Through a siRNA-based high throughput screen that identifies adipogenic regulators whose expression knockdown leads to enhanced adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, two new regulators, SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes H3K9Me3, and CITED2, a CBP/p300 interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 were uncovered.
[Stem Cells and Development]
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Tan, L., Tran, L., Ferreyra, S., Moran, J. A., Skovgaard, Z., Trujillo, A., Ibili, E., & Zhao, Y. (2021). Down Regulation of SUV39H1 and CITED2 Exerts Additive Effect on Promoting Adipogenic Commitment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0190 Cite
A functional effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-Gamma on AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 (AKT3), which ultimately results in a more aggressive disease phenotype was identified.
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PPAR-gamma induced AKT3 expression increases levels of mitochondrial biogenesis driving prostate cancer | Oncogene. (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41388-021-01707-7 Cite
Using purified mouse aortic adventitia Sca1+ progenitors, ACLP repressed stem cell markers and upregulated smooth muscle actin and collagen I expression.
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Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein regulates vascular adventitial progenitor and fibroblast differentiation through myocardin related transcription factor A | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved February 18, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-82941-7 Cite
Persons with HIV and diabetes have a high proportion of CX3CR1+ GPR56+ CD57+ (C-G-C+) CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue, a subset of which are cytomegalovirus specific, whereas individuals with diabetes but without HIV have predominantly CD69+ CD4+ T cells.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
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Wanjalla, C. N., McDonnell, W. J., Ram, R., Chopra, A., Gangula, R., Leary, S., Mashayekhi, M., Simmons, J. D., Warren, C. M., Bailin, S., Gabriel, C. L., Guo, L., Furch, B. D., Lima, M. C., Woodward, B. O., Hannah, L., Pilkinton, M. A., Fuller, D. T., Kawai, K., … Koethe, J. R. (2021). Single-cell analysis shows that adipose tissue of persons with both HIV and diabetes is enriched for clonal, cytotoxic, and CMV-specific CD4+ T cells. Cell Reports Medicine, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100205 Cite
The authors performed transcriptomic analysis of cancer cells and adjacent adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity-accelerated breast cancer and identified glycine amidinotransferase in adipocytes and Acsbg1 in cancer cells as required for obesity-driven tumor progression.
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Using a lineage tracing mouse model, the authors demonstrated that Gli1 marks a small subset of muscle‐resident fibro‐adipogenic progenitors with elevated Hedgehog signaling.
[Journal of Bone and Mineral Research]
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