Although the basal transcriptomes of adipocyte-derived induced multipotent stem cells and adipose tissue–derived MSCs were similar, changes were observed in histone modifications and CpG methylation at cis-regulatory regions consistent with an epigenetic landscape that was primed for tissue development and differentiation.
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Yeola, A., Subramanian, S., Oliver, R. A., Lucas, C. A., Thoms, J. A. I., Yan, F., Olivier, J., Chacon, D., Tursky, M. L., Srivastava, P., Potas, J. R., Hung, T., Power, C., Hardy, P., Ma, D. D., Kilian, K. A., McCarroll, J., Kavallaris, M., Hesson, L. B., … Pimanda, J. E. (2021). Induction of muscle-regenerative multipotent stem cells from human adipocytes by PDGF-AB and 5-azacytidine. Science Advances, 7(3), eabd1929. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd1929 Cite
The effects of ACT001 on cell survival of normal human astrocytes and patient-derived glioma stem-like cells were evaluated. RNA-Seq were performed to detect differentially expressed genes.
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Researchers showed that high-fat diet feeding greatly suppressed the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlated with reduced T cell mitochondrial function.
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Zhou, H., Peng, X., Hu, J., Wang, L., Luo, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Li, G., Ji, Y., Zhang, J., Bai, J., Liu, M., Zhou, Z., & Liu, F. (2021). DsbA-L deficiency in T cells promotes diet-induced thermogenesis through suppressing IFN-γ production. Nature Communications, 12(1), 326. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20665-4 Cite
The authors discuss recent findings on the roles of cellular metabolism in determining skeletal stem cell fate, coordinating osteoblast and chondrocyte function, and organizing stromal support of hematopoiesis.
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Investigators showed that the osteoclast differentiation receptor RANK couples female sex hormones to the rewiring of the thymus during pregnancy.
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The authors describe two aspects of the clinical therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord (hUCs)-MSCs. They explains the benefits and mechanisms of HUC-MSC treatment in various diseases.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Researchers assessed whether the transfection of master regulators could reprogram mouse adipocytes into dermal fibroblast-like cells. Their results indicated the shrinkage of fat droplets in reprogrammed mouse adipocytes and their transformation into spindle-shaped dermal fibroblasts.
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MSC cultures were induced to differentiate toward adipocytes, where lipid droplets and adipocyte genes PPARγ2, ADIPO-Q, and FABP4 were observed in control non-polyp nasal mucosa-derived mesenchymal cells but were scarcely present in the cultures derived from the nasal polyps, where apoptosis was evident.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Chiarella, E., Lombardo, N., Lobello, N., Piazzetta, G. L., Morrone, H. L., Mesuraca, M., & Bond, H. M. (2020). Deficit in Adipose Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Nasal Polyps Compared to Nasal Mucosal Tissue. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(23), 9214. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239214 Cite
Scientists review the literature pertaining to the contribution of endocardial cells to valvular, and nonvalvular lineages and highlight critical pathways required for these processes.
[Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine]
Scientists created the first 3D adipose tissue organoid model which could contain and maintain resident immune cell populations of the stromal vascular fraction and proved to be effective in studying adipose tissue biology in a convenient manner.
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Taylor, J., Sellin, J., Kuerschner, L., Krähl, L., Majlesain, Y., Förster, I., Thiele, C., Weighardt, H., & Weber, E. (2020). Generation of immune cell containing adipose organoids for in vitro analysis of immune metabolism. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21104. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78015-9 Cite
MSCs obtained from various sources have diverse capabilities of secreting many different cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. It is believed that the salutary effects of MSCs from different sources are not alike in terms of repairing or reformation of injured skeletal tissues.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]