Generation of Functional Brown Adipocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Progression through a Paraxial Mesoderm State

Human PSCs were subject to directed differentiation through a paraxial mesoderm progenitor state that generates brown adipocytes (BAs) at high efficiency. Molecular analysis identified potential regulatory networks for BA development, giving insight into development along this lineage.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Zhang, L., Avery, J., Yin, A., Singh, A. M., Cliff, T. S., Yin, H., & Dalton, S. (2020). Generation of Functional Brown Adipocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Progression through a Paraxial Mesoderm State. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.07.013 Cite
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Fetal Circulating Human Resistin Increases in Diabetes during Pregnancy and Impairs Placental Mitochondrial Biogenesis

Fetal resistin levels were measured in cord blood from pregnancies with and without maternal diabetes. Secretion of resistin from cord blood mononuclear cells was measured.
[Molecular Medicine]
Jiang, S., Teague, A. M., Tryggestad, J. B., Lyons, T. J., & Chernausek, S. D. (2020). Fetal circulating human resistin increases in diabetes during pregnancy and impairs placental mitochondrial biogenesis. Molecular Medicine, 26(1), 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s10020-020-00205-y Cite
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Celastrol Regulates Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate and Bone-Fat Balance in Osteoporosis and Skeletal Aging by Inducing PGC-1α Signaling

Investigators demonstrated that Celastrol promotes osteoblast differentiation and prevents adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
[Aging]
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Activating PIK3CA Mutation Promotes Adipogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Macrodactyly via Up-Regulation of E2F1

PIK3CA (H1047R) Activating Mutation and Enhanced Activity of PI3K/AKT Pathway were Detected in Macrodactylous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (Mac-ADSCs).
[Cell Death & Disease]
Sun, B., Jiang, Y., Cui, H., Fang, X., Han, G., Dai, X., Zhou, S., Mao, H., & Wang, B. (2020). Activating PIK3CA mutation promotes adipogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells in macrodactyly via up-regulation of E2F1. Cell Death & Disease, 11(7), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02806-1 Cite
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Subarachnoid Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Rodent Model with Subacute Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Study

The authors performed cellular, kinematic, physiological, and anatomical analyses, either in vitro or in vivo, to comprehensively evaluate the safety and efficacy associated with subarachnoid transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in rats with subacute incomplete spinal cord injury.
[Experimental Cell Research]
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Effect of Simulated Microgravity Conditions of Hindlimb Unloading on Mice Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a hindlimb suspension group. After four weeks of hindlimb suspension, scientists found that this simulated microgravity condition increased the percentage of monocytes and macrophages and decreased the percentage of B lymphocytes and mature red cells in bone marrow.
[Cell Biology International]
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Sarsasapogenin Improves Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice

Researchers showed that pretreatment with sarsasapogenin significantly inhibited acute adipose tissue inflammatory responses in LPS-treated mice.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
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Adipose Tissue: A Source of Stem Cells with Potential for Regenerative Therapies for Wound Healing

This review describes the current understanding of the origin, different types, anatomical location, and genetics of adipose tissue as well as discussing the properties of adipose-derived stem cells and their promising applications for tissue engineering, scarring, and wound healing.
[Journal of Clinical Medicine]
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Human Adipocyte Conditioned Medium Promotes In Vitro Fibroblast Conversion to Myofibroblasts

Using a novel in-vitro 3D human adipocyte/pre-adipocyte spheroid model, researchers investigated whether adipocytes and their precursors secreted factors that affected human dermal fibroblast behavior.
[Scientific Reports]
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Angiopoietin-2–Integrin α5β1 Signaling Enhances Vascular Fatty Acid Transport and Prevents Ectopic Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance

Mechanistically, Angpt2 activated integrin α5β1 signaling in the endothelium and triggered fatty acid transport via CD36 and FATP3 into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the endothelial integrin α5β1 recapitulated adipocyte-specific Angpt2 knockout phenotypes.
[Nature Communications]
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