Reversed-Engineered Human Alveolar Lung-on-a-Chip Model

[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Huang, D., Liu, T., Liao, J., Maharjan, S., Xie, X., Pérez, M., Anaya, I., Wang, S., Mayer, A. T., Kang, Z., Kong, W., Mainardi, V. L., Garciamendez-Mijares, C. E., Martínez, G. G., Moretti, M., Zhang, W., Gu, Z., Ghaemmaghami, A. M., & Zhang, Y. S. (2021). Reversed-engineered human alveolar lung-on-a-chip model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(19). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2016146118 Cite
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Microvesicles Released from Pneumolysin-Stimulated Lung Epithelial Cells Carry Mitochondrial Cargo and Suppress Neutrophil Oxidative Burst

we aim to characterize microvesicles shed from pneumolysin-stimulated alveolar epithelial cells and explore their contribution in mediating crosstalk with neutrophils.
[Scientific Reports]
Letsiou, E., Teixeira Alves, L. G., Fatykhova, D., Felten, M., Mitchell, T. J., Müller-Redetzky, H. C., Hocke, A. C., & Witzenrath, M. (2021). Microvesicles released from pneumolysin-stimulated lung epithelial cells carry mitochondrial cargo and suppress neutrophil oxidative burst. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9529. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88897-y Cite
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Rapid Endotheliitis and Vascular Damage Characterize SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Human Lung-Chip Model

Using a vascularised lung‐on‐chip model, scientists found that infection of alveolar epithelial cells leads to limited apical release of virions, consistent with reports of monoculture infection.
[EMBO Reports]
Thacker, V. V., Sharma, K., Dhar, N., Mancini, G.-F., Sordet-Dessimoz, J., & McKinney, J. D. (2021). Rapid endotheliitis and vascular damage characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection in a human lung-chip model. EMBO Reports, n/a(n/a), e52744. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202152744 Cite
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Type 2 Alveolar Epithelial Cells Differentiated from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Mouse Pulmonary Fibrosis through β-Catenin-Regulated Cell Apoptosis

Researchers induced human umbilical cord (hUC)-MSCs to differentiate into type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s), and provided evidence that intratracheal transplantation of hUC-MSC-derived AEC2s could improve mortality and alleviate fibrosis in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice.
[Stem Cells and Development]
Liu, J., Peng, D., You, J., Zhou, O., Qiu, H., Hao, C., Chen, H., Fu, Z., & Zou, L. (2021). Type 2 Alveolar Epithelial Cells Differentiated from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Mouse Pulmonary Fibrosis through β-Catenin-Regulated Cell Apoptosis. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0208 Cite
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Hyperoxia-Activated Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Induce Lung and Brain Injury in Neonatal Rats

Investigators utilized a neonatal rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia to assess if hyperoxia stimulates lung release of circulating extracellular vesicles(EVs) and if these EVs induce lung and brain injury.
[Scientific Reports]
Ali, A., Zambrano, R., Duncan, M. R., Chen, S., Luo, S., Yuan, H., Chen, P., Benny, M., Schmidt, A., Young, K., Kerr, N., de Rivero Vaccari, J. P., Keane, R. W., Dietrich, W. D., & Wu, S. (2021). Hyperoxia-activated circulating extracellular vesicles induce lung and brain injury in neonatal rats. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8791. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87706-w Cite
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Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Alleviate Pulmonary Fibrosis by Means of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Inhibition

The therapeutic effects of umbilical cord MSC-derived extracellular vesicleson pulmonay fibrosis were evaluated using bleomycin-induced mouse models.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Shi, L., Ren, J., Li, J., Wang, D., Wang, Y., Qin, T., Li, X., Zhang, G., Li, C., & Wang, Y. (2021). Extracellular vesicles derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells alleviate pulmonary fibrosis by means of transforming growth factor-β signaling inhibition. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 230. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02296-8 Cite
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Human Pluripotent Stem-Cell-Derived Alveolar Organoids for Modeling Pulmonary Fibrosis and Drug Testing

Scientists generated alveolar organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells for use as an pulmonary fibrosis model and for drug efficacy evaluation.
[Cell Death Discovery]
Kim, J.-H., An, G. H., Kim, J.-Y., Rasaei, R., Kim, W. J., Jin, X., Woo, D.-H., Han, C., Yang, S.-R., Kim, J.-H., & Hong, S.-H. (2021). Human pluripotent stem-cell-derived alveolar organoids for modeling pulmonary fibrosis and drug testing. Cell Death Discovery, 7(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00439-7 Cite
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Reticulocalbin 3 Deficiency in Alveolar Epithelium Attenuated LPSs-Induced ALI via NFκB Signaling

In vitro alveolar epithelial cells consistently exhibited a significant induction of reticulocalbin 3 accompanied with NFκB activation in response to LPS exposure.
[American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology]
Shi, X., An, X., Yang, L., Wu, Z., Zan, D., Li, Z., Pang, B., Chen, Y., Li, J., Tan, P., Ma, R. Z., Fang, Q., Ma, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). Reticulocalbin 3 deficiency in alveolar epithelium attenuated LPS-induced ALI via NFκB signaling. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00526.2020 Cite
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Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Immunomodulation: In Pursuit of Controlling COVID‐19 Related Cytokine Storm

Scientists present an overview and perspectives of the SARS‐CoV‐2 induced inflammatory dysfunction and the potential of MSC immunomodulation for the prevention and treatment of COVID‐19 related pulmonary disease.
[Stem Cells]

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Role of CXCL16 in BLM-Induced Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Human A549 Cells

The authors found that CXCL16 and its receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) were upregulated in bleomycin induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human alveolar type II-like epithelial A549 cells.
[Respiratory Research]
Ma, Z., Ma, C., Zhang, Q., Bai, Y., Mu, K., Liu, X., & Yang, Q. (2021). Role of CXCL16 in BLM-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human A549 cells. Respiratory Research, 22(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01646-7 Cite
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Second-Generation Lung-on-a-Chip with an Array of Stretchable Alveoli Made with a Biological Membrane

Investigators present a lung-on-a-chip, based on a biological, stretchable and biodegradable membrane made of collagen and elastin, that emulates an array of tiny alveoli with in vivo-like dimensions.
[Communications Biology]
Zamprogno, P., Wüthrich, S., Achenbach, S., Thoma, G., Stucki, J. D., Hobi, N., Schneider-Daum, N., Lehr, C.-M., Huwer, H., Geiser, T., Schmid, R. A., & Guenat, O. T. (2021). Second-generation lung-on-a-chip with an array of stretchable alveoli made with a biological membrane. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01695-0 Cite
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