Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Alleviate Lung Injury in Rat Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Affecting Cell Survival and Angiogenesis

Researchers found that human umbilical cord MSCs-derived small extracellular vesicles were successfully absorbed by lung tissue after intratracheal administration, and remained in the lungs for at least 72 hours.
[Stem Cells and Development]
You, J., Zhou, O., Liu, J., Zou, W., Zhang, L., Tian, D., Dai, J., Luo, Z., Liu, E., Fu, Z., & Zou, L. (2020). Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Alleviate Lung Injury in Rat Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Affecting Cell Survival and Angiogenesis. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0156 Cite
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Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Limits ILC2-Mediated Allergic Lung Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model

The authors examined the role of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in the allergic lung inflammation and demonstrated that the expression of FABP5 acts as a novel positive regulator of ST2 expression in alveolar epithelial cells (ECs) to generate retinoic acid (RA) and supports the synthesis of RA from type II alveolar ECs to suppress excessive activation of innate lymphoid cell 2 during allergic lung inflammation.
[Scientific Reports]
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Small GTPase RAB6 Deficiency Promotes Alveolar Progenitor Cell Renewal and Attenuates PM2.5-Induced Lung Injury and Fibrosis

Investigators demonstrated that knockout of RAB6 inhibited pulmonary fibrosis, oxidative stress, and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) cell death in fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-injured mice. In addition, knockout of RAB6 decreased Dickkopf 1 autocrine and activated proliferation, self-renewal, and wnt/β-catenin signaling of PM2.5-injured AEC2 cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Lung Organoids in an Ex Vivo Model of the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Fetal Lung

Researchers established a reproducible ex vivo model of lung development using transgene‐free human iPSCs generated from fetuses and infants with Bochdalek congenital diaphragmatic hernia, a polygenic disorder associated with fetal lung compression and pulmonary hypoplasia at birth.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
Kunisaki, S. M., Jiang, G., Biancotti, J. C., Ho, K. K. Y., Dye, B. R., Liu, A. P., & Spence, J. R. (n.d.). Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived lung organoids in an ex vivo model of the congenital diaphragmatic hernia fetal lung. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0199 Cite
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Extracellular Vesicle-Cargo miR-185-5p Reflects Type II Alveolar Cell Death after Oxidative Stress

Scientists found that hyperoxia and its derivative, reactive oxygen species, upregulated miR-185-5p, but not miR-185-3p, in alveolar cells.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Prenatal Smoke Exposure Dysregulates Lung Epithelial Cell Differentiation in Mouse Offspring – Role for AREG-Induced EGFR Signaling

Scientists investigated the effect of prenatal smoke exposure on lung epithelial cell differentiation and linked this with Amphiregulin-epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in one-day old mouse offspring.
[American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology]
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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Amplify Neutrophil Recruitment and Inflammation in Neutrophilic Asthma by Stimulating the Airway Epithelial Cells to Activate the TLR4/NF-κB Pathway and Secrete Chemokines

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and neutrophil swarming was seen in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma. Additionally, NETs were found to stimulate airway cells to express CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which recruits neutrophils to the inflammation site.
[Aging]
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Therapeutic Effects of SRT2104 on Lung Injury in Rats with Emphysema via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cell Senescence

Researchers investigated whether the pharmacological sirtuin 1 activator SRT2104 protects against Type II alveolar epithelial cell senescence in rats with emphysema.
[COPD-Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]
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Alveolar Regeneration through a Krt8+ Transitional Stem Cell State That Persists in Human Lung Fibrosis

Trajectory modeling together with lineage tracing revealed that airway and alveolar stem cells converged on a unique Krt8+ transitional stem cell state during alveolar regeneration.
[Nature Communications]
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Persistence of a Regeneration-Associated, Transitional Alveolar Epithelial Cell State in Pulmonary Fibrosis

Using lung organoids, multiple in vivo repair models, single-cell transcriptomics and lineage tracing, researchers found that alveolar type-2 epithelial cells undergoing differentiation into type-1 cells acquired pre-alveolar type-1 transitional cell state en route to terminal maturation.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Kobayashi, Y., Tata, A., Konkimalla, A., Katsura, H., Lee, R. F., Ou, J., … Tata, P. R. (2020). Persistence of a regeneration-associated, transitional alveolar epithelial cell state in pulmonary fibrosis. Nature Cell Biology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-0542-8 Cite
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Alveolar Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibit Endosomal Fusion of Influenza Virus

Scientists demonstrated that aveolar macrophages, but not epithelial cells (ECs), constitutively secreted paracrine activity localized to extracellular vesicles which inhibited influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo .
[EMBO Journal]
Schneider, D. J., Smith, K. A., Latuszek, C. E., Wilke, C. A., Lyons, D. M., Penke, L. R., … Peters-Golden, M. (2020). Alveolar macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit endosomal fusion of influenza virus. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105057. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105057 Cite
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