Lung Epithelial and Endothelial Damage, Loss of Tissue Repair, Inhibition of Fibrinolysis, and Cellular Senescence in Fatal COVID-19

Lung autopsy samples from 18 patients with fatal COVID-19, with symptom onset-to-death times ranging from 3 to 47 days, and antemortem plasma samples from 6 of these cases were evaluated using deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, multiplex plasma protein measurements, and pulmonary gene expression and imaging analyses.
[Science Translational Medicine]
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In Vitro Genotoxicity of Dibutyl Phthalate on A549 Lung Cells at Air-Liquid Interface in Exposure Concentrations Relevant at Workplaces

While in vitro studies were often based on submerged exposures, this study aimed to expose A549 alveolar epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to unravel the genotoxic and oxidative stress-inducing potential of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with concentrations relevant at occupational settings.
[Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis]
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Protective Effect of Xiao-Xu-Ming Decoction-Mediated Inhibition of ROS/NLRP3 Axis on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury In Vitro and In Vivo

As a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) could reduce the incidence of lung infection of patients with cerebral infarction. In vitro, human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells were treated with XXMD and were followed by lipopolysaccharide treatment.
[Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine]
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A cGAS-Dependent Response Links DNA Damage and Senescence in Alveolar Epithelial Cells: A Potential Drug Target in IPF

Scientists investigated the role of the DNA-sensing GMP-AMP synthase in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, with a focus on alveolar epithelial cell senescence.
[American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology]
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Concomitant and Decoupled Effects of Cigarette Smoke and SCAL1 Upregulation on Oncogenic Phenotypes and ROS Detoxification in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

A novel long noncoding RNA called smoke and cancer-associated lncRNA 1 was recently found upregulated in smoke-exposed adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cells.
[Scientific Reports]
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YAP Regulates Alveolar Epithelial Cell Differentiation and AGER via NFIB/KLF5/NKX2-1

Postnatal YAP activation increased epithelial cell proliferation, increased alveolar type-1 cell numbers, and caused indeterminate differentiation of subsets of alveolar cells expressing atypical genes normally restricted to airway epithelial cells.
[iScience]
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Core-Shell Hydrogel Microfiber-Expanded Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Lung Progenitors Applicable to Lung Reconstruction In Vivo

The authors established an expansion system of hPSC-derived lung progenitors based on their 3D culture in core-shell hydrogel microfibers, that ensures the maintenance of their bipotency for differentiation into alveolar and airway epithelial cells including alveolar type II cells.
[Biomaterials]
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Pretreatment with Valproic Acid Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis through Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition Inhibition In Vitro and In Vivo

In vitro, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by the administration of transforming growth factor-β1 in a human alveolar epithelial cell line.
[Laboratory Investigation]
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D-Dopachrome Tautomerase Contributes to Lung Epithelial Repair via Atypical Chemokine Receptor 3-Dependent Akt Signaling

Investigators studied effects of recombinant D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) on cell proliferation and survival by clonogenic assay and annexin V-PI staining respectively. DDT-induced signaling was investigated by Western blot.
[Ebiomedicine]
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Mesenchymal Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency Leads to Failure of Alveolar Progenitor Cell Function and Severe Pulmonary Fibrosis

The authors identified growth hormone receptor is mainly expressed in mesenchymal cells, and its expression is substantially decreased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lungs.
[Science Advances]
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Integrating Longitudinal Clinical Laboratory Tests with Targeted Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal the Landscape of Host Responses in COVID-19

Comparison of the transcriptomes of the bronchoalveolar microenvironment and peripheral blood indicates alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, and monocytes in lungs as the potential main sources of elevated cytokines mediating systemic immune responses and organ damages.
[Cell Discovery]
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