Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Amplify Neutrophil Recruitment and Inflammation in Neutrophilic Asthma by Stimulating the Airway Epithelial Cells to Activate the TLR4/NF-κB Pathway and Secrete Chemokines

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and neutrophil swarming was seen in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma. Additionally, NETs were found to stimulate airway cells to express CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which recruits neutrophils to the inflammation site.
[Aging]
Aging | Neutrophil extracellular traps amplify neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in neutrophilic asthma by stimulating the airway epithelial cells to activate the TLR4/ NF-κB pathway and secrete chemokines - Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved August 7, 2020, from https://www.aging-us.com/article/5f2427ad6c2ca900075aeb68/text Cite
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Therapeutic Effects of SRT2104 on Lung Injury in Rats with Emphysema via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cell Senescence

Researchers investigated whether the pharmacological sirtuin 1 activator SRT2104 protects against Type II alveolar epithelial cell senescence in rats with emphysema.
[COPD-Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]
Gu, C., Zhang, Q., Ni, D., Xiao, Q.-F., Cao, L.-F., Fei, C.-Y., Ying, Y., Li, N., & Tao, F. (2020). Therapeutic Effects of SRT2104 on Lung Injury in Rats with Emphysema via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cell Senescence. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 0(0), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2020.1797657 Cite
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Alveolar Regeneration through a Krt8+ Transitional Stem Cell State That Persists in Human Lung Fibrosis

Trajectory modeling together with lineage tracing revealed that airway and alveolar stem cells converged on a unique Krt8+ transitional stem cell state during alveolar regeneration.
[Nature Communications]
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Persistence of a Regeneration-Associated, Transitional Alveolar Epithelial Cell State in Pulmonary Fibrosis

Using lung organoids, multiple in vivo repair models, single-cell transcriptomics and lineage tracing, researchers found that alveolar type-2 epithelial cells undergoing differentiation into type-1 cells acquired pre-alveolar type-1 transitional cell state en route to terminal maturation.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Kobayashi, Y., Tata, A., Konkimalla, A., Katsura, H., Lee, R. F., Ou, J., … Tata, P. R. (2020). Persistence of a regeneration-associated, transitional alveolar epithelial cell state in pulmonary fibrosis. Nature Cell Biology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-0542-8 Cite
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Alveolar Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibit Endosomal Fusion of Influenza Virus

Scientists demonstrated that aveolar macrophages, but not epithelial cells (ECs), constitutively secreted paracrine activity localized to extracellular vesicles which inhibited influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo .
[EMBO Journal]
Schneider, D. J., Smith, K. A., Latuszek, C. E., Wilke, C. A., Lyons, D. M., Penke, L. R., … Peters-Golden, M. (2020). Alveolar macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit endosomal fusion of influenza virus. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105057. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105057 Cite
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Paracrine SPARC Signaling Dysregulates Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Function in Lung Fibrosis

As epithelial–mesenchymal interactions are essential for normal wound healing, through human 2D and 3D in vitro studies, researchers tested the hypothesis that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis fibroblasts dysregulated alveolar epithelial homeostasis.
[Cell Death Discovery]
Conforti, F., Ridley, R., Brereton, C., Alzetani, A., Johnson, B., Marshall, B. G., … Davies, D. E. (2020). Paracrine SPARC signaling dysregulates alveolar epithelial barrier integrity and function in lung fibrosis. Cell Death Discovery, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0289-9 Cite
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Copper-Dependent Biological Effects of Particulate Matter Produced by Brake Systems on Lung Alveolar Cells

Researchers studied the cell toxicity of particulate matter produced by different combinations of braking discs and pads containing different amounts of copper.
[Archives of Toxicology]
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PEBP1 Acts as a Rheostat between Prosurvival Autophagy and Ferroptotic Death in Asthmatic Epithelial Cells

The concomitant activation of ferroptosis and autophagy by 15-lipoxygenase-1–PE-binding protein-1 complexes and their hydroperoxy-phospholipids revealed a pathobiologic pathway relevant to asthma and amenable to therapeutic targeting.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Wnt/β‐Catenin Signaling Is Critical for Regenerative Potential of Distal Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Homeostasis and Emphysema

Researchers identified an organoid‐forming adult distal lung epithelial progenitor cell population characterized by a low Wnt/β‐catenin activity, which was enriched in club and alveolar epithelial type II cells.
[Stem Cells]
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