Researchers found that human umbilical cord MSCs-derived small extracellular vesicles were successfully absorbed by lung tissue after intratracheal administration, and remained in the lungs for at least 72 hours.
[Stem Cells and Development]
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You, J., Zhou, O., Liu, J., Zou, W., Zhang, L., Tian, D., Dai, J., Luo, Z., Liu, E., Fu, Z., & Zou, L. (2020). Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Alleviate Lung Injury in Rat Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Affecting Cell Survival and Angiogenesis. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2020.0156 Cite
The authors examined the role of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in the allergic lung inflammation and demonstrated that the expression of FABP5 acts as a novel positive regulator of ST2 expression in alveolar epithelial cells (ECs) to generate retinoic acid (RA) and supports the synthesis of RA from type II alveolar ECs to suppress excessive activation of innate lymphoid cell 2 during allergic lung inflammation.
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Investigators demonstrated that knockout of RAB6 inhibited pulmonary fibrosis, oxidative stress, and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) cell death in fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-injured mice. In addition, knockout of RAB6 decreased Dickkopf 1 autocrine and activated proliferation, self-renewal, and wnt/β-catenin signaling of PM2.5-injured AEC2 cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Researchers established a reproducible ex vivo model of lung development using transgene‐free human iPSCs generated from fetuses and infants with Bochdalek congenital diaphragmatic hernia, a polygenic disorder associated with fetal lung compression and pulmonary hypoplasia at birth.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
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Kunisaki, S. M., Jiang, G., Biancotti, J. C., Ho, K. K. Y., Dye, B. R., Liu, A. P., & Spence, J. R. (n.d.). Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived lung organoids in an ex vivo model of the congenital diaphragmatic hernia fetal lung. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0199 Cite
Scientists found that hyperoxia and its derivative, reactive oxygen species, upregulated miR-185-5p, but not miR-185-3p, in alveolar cells.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Scientists investigated the effect of prenatal smoke exposure on lung epithelial cell differentiation and linked this with Amphiregulin-epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in one-day old mouse offspring.
[American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology]
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Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and neutrophil swarming was seen in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma. Additionally, NETs were found to stimulate airway cells to express CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which recruits neutrophils to the inflammation site.
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Researchers investigated whether the pharmacological sirtuin 1 activator SRT2104 protects against Type II alveolar epithelial cell senescence in rats with emphysema.
[COPD-Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]
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Trajectory modeling together with lineage tracing revealed that airway and alveolar stem cells converged on a unique Krt8+ transitional stem cell state during alveolar regeneration.
Using lung organoids, multiple in vivo repair models, single-cell transcriptomics and lineage tracing, researchers found that alveolar type-2 epithelial cells undergoing differentiation into type-1 cells acquired pre-alveolar type-1 transitional cell state en route to terminal maturation.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Scientists demonstrated that aveolar macrophages, but not epithelial cells (ECs), constitutively secreted paracrine activity localized to extracellular vesicles which inhibited influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo .
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