MicroRNA Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Investigators summarize the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, BMI-1 and STAT3 that are important for the breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
[Cancer Cell International]
Niu, T., Zhang, W., & Xiao, W. (2021). MicroRNA regulation of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01716-8 Cite
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Role of Runx2 in Prostate Development and Stem Cell Function

Selective growth of murine prostate epithelium under non‐adherent conditions was used to enrich for stem cells. Expression of runt domain transcription factors, stem cell and prostate marker messenger RNAs was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
[Prostate]
Li, Y., Ge, C., & Franceschi, R. T. (n.d.). Role of Runx2 in prostate development and stem cell function. The Prostate, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.24099 Cite
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PI3K/Akt Pathway and Nanog Maintain Cancer Stem Cells in Sarcomas

Levels of Nanog and activated Akt were significantly higher in sarcoma cells grown as spheroids or sorted for CD133 expression to enrich for cancer stem cells.
[Oncogenesis]
Yoon, C., Lu, J., Yi, B. C., Chang, K. K., Simon, M. C., Ryeom, S., & Yoon, S. S. (2021). PI3K/Akt pathway and Nanog maintain cancer stem cells in sarcomas. Oncogenesis, 10(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-00300-z Cite
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Autophagy Augments the Self-Renewal of Lung Cancer Stem Cells by the Degradation of Ubiquitinated p53

By generating stable human lung cancer stem cell (CSC) cell lines with the wild-type TP53, as well as cell lines in which TP53 was deleted, the authors showed, for the first time, that autophagy augments the stemness of lung CSCs by degrading ubiquitinated p53.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Wang, J., Liu, D., Sun, Z., Ye, T., Li, J., Zeng, B., Zhao, Q., & Rosie Xing, H. (2021). Autophagy augments the self-renewal of lung cancer stem cells by the degradation of ubiquitinated p53. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03392-6 Cite
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A Novel Hypoxic Long Noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 Maintains Breast Cancer Stem Cell Stemness via Interacting With IGF2BP1 to Facilitate C-Myc mRNA Stability

The enhanced long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitated breast cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Zhu, P., He, F., Hou, Y., Tu, G., Li, Q., Jin, T., Zeng, H., Qin, Y., Wan, X., Qiao, Y., Qiu, Y., Teng, Y., & Liu, M. (2021). A novel hypoxic long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains breast cancer stem cell stemness via interacting with IGF2BP1 to facilitate c-Myc mRNA stability. Oncogene, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9 Cite
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Decorin-Mediated Suppression of Tumorigenesis, Invasion, and Metastasis in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Overexpression of decorin in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells markedly decreased migration, invasion, and cancer stem cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in IBC xenograft mouse models.
[Communications Biology]
Hu, X., Villodre, E. S., Larson, R., Rahal, O. M., Wang, X., Gong, Y., Song, J., Krishnamurthy, S., Ueno, N. T., Tripathy, D., Woodward, W. A., & Debeb, B. G. (2021). Decorin-mediated suppression of tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in inflammatory breast cancer. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01590-0 Cite
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Advances in Liver Cancer Stem Cell Isolation and their Characterization

Investigators review the research progress made in the isolation and characterization of liver cancer stem cells by considering a wide range of cell surface markers and sorting methods, as applied to side populations, microsphere cultures and the gradient centrifugation method.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
Liu, L., & Borlak, J. (2021). Advances in Liver Cancer Stem Cell Isolation and their Characterization. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10114-6 Cite
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CD117/C-Kit Defines a Prostate CSC-Like Subpopulation Driving Progression and TKI Resistance

To determine how CD117 expression and activation by its ligand stem cell factor alters prostate cancer aggressiveness, researchers used C4-2 and PC3-mm human prostate cancer cells, which contained a CD117+ subpopulation.
[Scientific Reports]
Harris, K. S., Shi, L., Foster, B. M., Mobley, M. E., Elliott, P. L., Song, C. J., Watabe, K., Langefeld, C. D., & Kerr, B. A. (2021). CD117/c-kit defines a prostate CSC-like subpopulation driving progression and TKI resistance. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1465. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81126-6 Cite
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Prolactin Receptor-Driven Combined Luminal and Epithelial Differentiation in Breast Cancer Restricts Plasticity, Stemness, Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

The authors found that interfering with expression of the receptor for the lactogenic hormone prolactin in breast cancer cells representative of the luminal and epithelial breast cancer subtypes resulted in loss of their differentiation state, enriched for stem-like cell subpopulations, and increased their tumorigenic capacity in a subtype-specific manner.
[Oncogenesis]
Shams, A., Binothman, N., Boudreault, J., Wang, N., Shams, F., Hamam, D., Tian, J., Moamer, A., Dai, M., Lebrun, J.-J., & Ali, S. (2021). Prolactin receptor-driven combined luminal and epithelial differentiation in breast cancer restricts plasticity, stemness, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Oncogenesis, 10(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-00297-5 Cite
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TGFB1/INHBA homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 Signaling Network: A Pivotal Molecular Target in PDAC Treatment

The authors focus on TGFB1/INHBA homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 signaling network in pancreatic cancer as a pivotal central node which regulates multiple key mechanisms involved in the development of chemoresistance, including enhancement of the stem cell-like properties and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells, mediating cooperative interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and the surrounding stroma as well as regulating the deposition of ECM proteins within the tumor microenvironment.
[Molecular Therapy]
Mouti, M. A., & Pauklin, S. (2021). TGFB1/INHBA homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 Signalling Network: A Pivotal Molecular Target in PDAC Treatment. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.01.002 Cite
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The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Model: A New In Vivo Tool to Evaluate Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity

The authors established a CAM-LDA assay able to rapidly reproduce tumor specificities- in particular, the ability of the small population of cancer stem cells to form tumors.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Pinto, M. T., Ribeiro, A. S., Conde, I., Carvalho, R., & Paredes, J. (2021). The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Model: A New In Vivo Tool to Evaluate Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(1), 334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010334 Cite
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