Investigators summarize the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, BMI-1 and STAT3 that are important for the breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
[Cancer Cell International]
Selective growth of murine prostate epithelium under non‐adherent conditions was used to enrich for stem cells. Expression of runt domain transcription factors, stem cell and prostate marker messenger RNAs was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
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Levels of Nanog and activated Akt were significantly higher in sarcoma cells grown as spheroids or sorted for CD133 expression to enrich for cancer stem cells.
By generating stable human lung cancer stem cell (CSC) cell lines with the wild-type TP53, as well as cell lines in which TP53 was deleted, the authors showed, for the first time, that autophagy augments the stemness of lung CSCs by degrading ubiquitinated p53.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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The enhanced long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitated breast cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo.
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Zhu, P., He, F., Hou, Y., Tu, G., Li, Q., Jin, T., Zeng, H., Qin, Y., Wan, X., Qiao, Y., Qiu, Y., Teng, Y., & Liu, M. (2021). A novel hypoxic long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains breast cancer stem cell stemness via interacting with IGF2BP1 to facilitate c-Myc mRNA stability. Oncogene, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9 Cite
Overexpression of decorin in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells markedly decreased migration, invasion, and cancer stem cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in IBC xenograft mouse models.
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Hu, X., Villodre, E. S., Larson, R., Rahal, O. M., Wang, X., Gong, Y., Song, J., Krishnamurthy, S., Ueno, N. T., Tripathy, D., Woodward, W. A., & Debeb, B. G. (2021). Decorin-mediated suppression of tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in inflammatory breast cancer. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01590-0 Cite
Investigators review the research progress made in the isolation and characterization of liver cancer stem cells by considering a wide range of cell surface markers and sorting methods, as applied to side populations, microsphere cultures and the gradient centrifugation method.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
To determine how CD117 expression and activation by its ligand stem cell factor alters prostate cancer aggressiveness, researchers used C4-2 and PC3-mm human prostate cancer cells, which contained a CD117+ subpopulation.
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Harris, K. S., Shi, L., Foster, B. M., Mobley, M. E., Elliott, P. L., Song, C. J., Watabe, K., Langefeld, C. D., & Kerr, B. A. (2021). CD117/c-kit defines a prostate CSC-like subpopulation driving progression and TKI resistance. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1465. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81126-6 Cite
The authors found that interfering with expression of the receptor for the lactogenic hormone prolactin in breast cancer cells representative of the luminal and epithelial breast cancer subtypes resulted in loss of their differentiation state, enriched for stem-like cell subpopulations, and increased their tumorigenic capacity in a subtype-specific manner.
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Shams, A., Binothman, N., Boudreault, J., Wang, N., Shams, F., Hamam, D., Tian, J., Moamer, A., Dai, M., Lebrun, J.-J., & Ali, S. (2021). Prolactin receptor-driven combined luminal and epithelial differentiation in breast cancer restricts plasticity, stemness, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Oncogenesis, 10(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-00297-5 Cite
The authors focus on TGFB1/INHBA homodimer/Nodal-SMAD2/3 signaling network in pancreatic cancer as a pivotal central node which regulates multiple key mechanisms involved in the development of chemoresistance, including enhancement of the stem cell-like properties and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells, mediating cooperative interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and the surrounding stroma as well as regulating the deposition of ECM proteins within the tumor microenvironment.
The authors established a CAM-LDA assay able to rapidly reproduce tumor specificities- in particular, the ability of the small population of cancer stem cells to form tumors.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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