MAPK4 Promotes Prostate Cancer by Concerted Activation of Androgen Receptor and AKT

Scientists demonstrated that MAPK4 activated androgen receptor (AR) by enhancing GATA2 transcriptional expression and stabilizing GATA2 protein through repression of GATA2 ubiquitination/degradation. MAPK4 expression correlated with AR activation in human castration-resistant prostate cancer.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Shen, T., Wang, W., Zhou, W., Coleman, I., Cai, Q., Dong, B., Ittmann, M. M., Creighton, C. J., Bian, Y., Meng, Y., Rowley, D. R., Nelson, P. S., Moore, D. D., & Yang, F. (2021). MAPK4 promotes prostate cancer by concerted activation of androgen receptor and AKT. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131(4). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135465 Cite
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BRG1 Knockdown Inhibits Proliferation through Multiple Cellular Pathways in Prostate Cancer

Investigators probed the functions of BRG1 on a background of prostate cancer to investigate how BRG1 controls gene expression programs and cancer cell behavior.
[Clinical Epigenetics]
Giles, K. A., Gould, C. M., Achinger-Kawecka, J., Page, S. G., Kafer, G. R., Rogers, S., Luu, P.-L., Cesare, A. J., Clark, S. J., & Taberlay, P. C. (2021). BRG1 knockdown inhibits proliferation through multiple cellular pathways in prostate cancer. Clinical Epigenetics, 13(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01023-7 Cite
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Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Promoted Lung Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties via Enhancing Bach1 Expression

Scientists observed that chronic intermittent hypoxia endowed lung cancer with greater metastatic potential, evidenced by increased tumor growth, tumor seeding, and upregulated cancer stem cells-related gene expression in the lungs.
[Respiratory Research]
Hao, S., Zhu, X., Liu, Z., Wu, X., Li, S., Jiang, P., & Jiang, L. (2021). Chronic intermittent hypoxia promoted lung cancer stem cell-like properties via enhancing Bach1 expression. Respiratory Research, 22(1), 58. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01655-6 Cite
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Biological Characteristics of Stem Cells Derived from Burned Skin-a Comparative Study with Umbilical Cord Stem Cells

Burn-derived MSCs- and umbilical cord-MSCs were compared using immunophenotyping, multi-lineage differentiation, seahorse analysis for glycolytic and mitochondrial function, immune surface markers, and cell secretion profile assays.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Dolp, R., Eylert, G., Auger, C., Aijaz, A., Chen, Y. A., Amini-Nik, S., Parousis, A., Datu, A.-K., & Jeschke, M. G. (2021). Biological characteristics of stem cells derived from burned skin—a comparative study with umbilical cord stem cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 137. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02140-z Cite
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Role of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli in Proliferation and Differentiation of Colon Epithelial Cells in Organoid Culture

Researchers performed genetic analyses of adenomatous polyposis coli using a 3D organoid culture of mouse colon epithelia, which enabled the detailed examination of epithelial properties.
[Scientific Reports]
Yamazaki, D., Hashizume, O., Taniguchi, S., Funato, Y., & Miki, H. (2021). Role of adenomatous polyposis coli in proliferation and differentiation of colon epithelial cells in organoid culture. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3980. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83590-6 Cite
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Various Diseases

The author summarizes the therapeutic effects of iPSC-derived exosomes on various disease models and their properties, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, with the hopes of improving their potential role in clinical applications and functional restoration.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Wang, A. Y. L. (2021). Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Various Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(4), 1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041769 Cite
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Regulation of Anti-Tumorigenic Pathways by the Combinatory Treatment of Calcitriol and TGF-β in PC-3 and DU145 Cells

Researchers in vitro analyzed the combinatory effects of calcitriol and transforming growth factors beta (TGF-β) on cell growth and apoptosis using PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines.
[Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology]
García-Olivares, M., Romero-Córdoba, S., Ortíz-Sánchez, E., García-Becerra, R., Segovia-Mendoza, M., Rangel-Escareño, C., Halhali, A., Larrea, F., & Barrera, D. (2021). Regulation of anti-tumorigenic pathways by the combinatory treatment of calcitriol and TGF-β in PC-3 and DU145 cells. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 105831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105831 Cite
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NAD+ Depletion by Type I Interferon Signaling Sensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to NAMPT Inhibition

The authors showed that interferon signaling, present in a subset of PDAC tumors, substantially lowers NAD(H) levels through up-regulating the expression of NAD-consuming enzymes PARP9, PARP10, and PARP14.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Moore, A. M., Zhou, L., Cui, J., Li, L., Wu, N., Yu, A., Poddar, S., Liang, K., Abt, E. R., Kim, S., Ghukasyan, R., Khachatourian, N., Pagano, K., Elliott, I., Dann, A. M., Riahi, R., Le, T., Dawson, D. W., Radu, C. G., & Donahue, T. R. (2021). NAD+ depletion by type I interferon signaling sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to NAMPT inhibition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(8). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2012469118 Cite
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Exploitation of the Vitamin A/Retinoic Acid Axis Depletes ALDH1-Positive Cancer Stem Cells and Re-Sensitizes Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells to Cisplatin

The authors investigated the function of the cancer stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase in retinoic acid cell signaling using an in vitro model of cisplatin resistant non-small cell lung cancer.
[Translational Oncology]
MacDonagh, L., Santiago, R. M., Gray, S. G., Breen, E., Cuffe, S., Finn, S. P., O’Byrne, K. J., & Barr, M. P. (2021). Exploitation of the vitamin A/retinoic acid axis depletes ALDH1-positive cancer stem cells and re-sensitises resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells to cisplatin. Translational Oncology, 14(4), 101025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101025 Cite
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Clinico-Pathological Importance of miR-146a in Lung Cancer

The potential role of miR-146a as a diagnostic marker of lung cancer must be analyzed. Scientists summarize the tumor-suppressing, anti-inflammatory, and antichemoresistive nature of miR-146a in lung cancer.
[Diagnostics]
Diagnostics | Free Full-Text | Clinico-Pathological Importance of miR-146a in Lung Cancer. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4418/11/2/274 Cite
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Neoadjuvant Anti-OX40 (MEDI6469) Therapy in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Activates and Expands Antigen-Specific Tumor-Infiltrating T Cell

Scientists describe the results from a Phase Ib clinical trial in which 17 patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received a murine anti-human OX40 agonist antibody prior to definitive surgical resection.
[Nature Communications]
Duhen, R., Ballesteros-Merino, C., Frye, A. K., Tran, E., Rajamanickam, V., Chang, S.-C., Koguchi, Y., Bifulco, C. B., Bernard, B., Leidner, R. S., Curti, B. D., Fox, B. A., Urba, W. J., Bell, R. B., & Weinberg, A. D. (2021). Neoadjuvant anti-OX40 (MEDI6469) therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma activates and expands antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating T cells. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1047. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21383-1 Cite
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