Small Extracellular Vesicles from Adipose Derived Stromal Cells Significantly Attenuate In Vitro the Nf-κB Dependent Inflammatory/Catabolic Environment of Osteoarthritis

Researchers investigated the effects of small extracellular vesicles from adipose derived stromal cells on both chondrocytes and synoviocytes, in order to gain insights into the mechanisms modulating the inflammatory/catabolic osteoarthritis environment.
[Scientific Reports]
Cavallo, C., Merli, G., Borzì, R. M., Zini, N., D’Adamo, S., Guescini, M., Grigolo, B., Di Martino, A., Santi, S., & Filardo, G. (2021). Small Extracellular Vesicles from adipose derived stromal cells significantly attenuate in vitro the NF-κB dependent inflammatory/catabolic environment of osteoarthritis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1053. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80032-7 Cite
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Single Cell Transcriptomic Analysis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Chondrogenesis

Scientists combined bulk RNA sequencing, single cell RNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analyses, including weighted gene co-expression analysis, to investigate the gene regulatory networks regulating human iPSC differentiation under chondrogenic conditions.
[Nature Communications]
Wu, C.-L., Dicks, A., Steward, N., Tang, R., Katz, D. B., Choi, Y.-R., & Guilak, F. (2021). Single cell transcriptomic analysis of human pluripotent stem cell chondrogenesis. Nature Communications, 12(1), 362. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20598-y Cite
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Single-Cell Transcriptome Analysis of Uncultured Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Scientists investigated freshly isolated, uncultured umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs by single-cell RNA sequencing and found two populations of UC-MSCs.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zhang, S., Wang, J. Y., Li, B., Yin, F., & Liu, H. (2021). Single-cell transcriptome analysis of uncultured human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02055-1 Cite
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Kindlin-2 Regulates Skeletal Homeostasis by Modulating PTH1R in Mice

Researchers report that deleting Kindlin-2 in osteoblastic cells using the mouse 10-kb Dmp1-Cre largely neutralized the intermittent PTH-stimulated increasing of bone volume fraction and bone mineral density by impairing both osteoblast and osteoclast formation in murine adult bone.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Fu, X., Zhou, B., Yan, Q., Tao, C., Qin, L., Wu, X., Lin, S., Chen, S., Lai, Y., Zou, X., Shao, Z., Wang, M., Chen, D., Jin, W., Song, Y., Cao, H., Zhang, G., & Xiao, G. (2020). Kindlin-2 regulates skeletal homeostasis by modulating PTH1R in mice. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00328-y Cite
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Metabolic Regulation of Skeletal Cell Fate and Function in Physiology and Disease

The authors discuss recent findings on the roles of cellular metabolism in determining skeletal stem cell fate, coordinating osteoblast and chondrocyte function, and organizing stromal support of hematopoiesis.
[Nature Metabolism]
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Intra-Articular Collagenase in the Spinal Facet Joint Induces Pain, DRG Neuron Dysregulation and Increased MMP-1 Absent Evidence of Joint Destruction

A co-culture collagen gel model of the ligament was used to evaluate effects of collagenase on microscale changes to the collagen fibers and embedded neurons.
[Scientific Reports]
Ita, M. E., Ghimire, P., Welch, R. L., Troche, H. R., & Winkelstein, B. A. (2020). Intra-articular collagenase in the spinal facet joint induces pain, DRG neuron dysregulation and increased MMP-1 absent evidence of joint destruction. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21965. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78811-3 Cite
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BMSC-Derived Exosomes from Congenital Polydactyly Tissue Alleviate Osteoarthritis by Promoting Chondrocyte Proliferation

Investigators acquired a special kind of MSCs from the bone marrow of surgically resected tissue from the hand of a patient with polydactyly. Experiments were focused on the role of polydactyly bone marrow-derived MSCs in osteoarthritis.
[Cell Death Discovery]
Zhou, X., Liang, H., Hu, X., An, J., Ding, S., Yu, S., Liu, C., Li, F., & Xu, Y. (2020). BMSC-derived exosomes from congenital polydactyly tissue alleviate osteoarthritis by promoting chondrocyte proliferation. Cell Death Discovery, 6(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00374-z Cite
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What Is the Impact of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation on Clinical Treatment?

The authors describe two aspects of the clinical therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord (hUCs)-MSCs. They explains the benefits and mechanisms of HUC-MSC treatment in various diseases.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Xie, Q., Liu, R., Jiang, J., Peng, J., Yang, C., Zhang, W., Wang, S., & Song, J. (2020). What is the impact of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on clinical treatment? Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 519. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02011-z Cite
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Impact of Tranexamic Acid on Chondrocytes and Osteogenically Differentiated Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hMSCs) In Vitro

Investigators examined the effects of varying exposure times and concentrations of tranexamic acid on proliferation rates, gene expression and differentiation capacity of chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stromal cells, which underwent osteogenic differentiation.
[Journal of Clinical Medicine]
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Amazing Remedies for Bone and Cartilage Defects

MSCs obtained from various sources have diverse capabilities of secreting many different cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. It is believed that the salutary effects of MSCs from different sources are not alike in terms of repairing or reformation of injured skeletal tissues.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Kangari, P., Talaei-Khozani, T., Razeghian-Jahromi, I., & Razmkhah, M. (2020). Mesenchymal stem cells: amazing remedies for bone and cartilage defects. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 492. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02001-1 Cite
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Fabrication of Hyaline-Like Cartilage Constructs using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets

Researchers developed transplantable hyaline-like cartilage constructs by stimulating MSC chondrogenic differentiation as cell sheets.
[Scientific Reports]
Thorp, H., Kim, K., Kondo, M., Grainger, D. W., & Okano, T. (2020). Fabrication of hyaline-like cartilage constructs using mesenchymal stem cell sheets. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20869. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77842-0 Cite
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