Oral administration of β-elemene, contained in various foodstuffs, downregulated expressions of inflammatory cytokines and increased Foxp3+CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue of obese mice.
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Zhou, Y., Takano, T., Wang, Y., Li, X., Wang, R., Wakatsuki, Y., Nakajima-Adachi, H., Tanokura, M., Miyakawa, T., & Hachimura, S. (2020). Intestinal Regulatory T Cell Induction by β-Elemene Alleviates the Formation of Fat Tissue-Related Inflammation. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101883 Cite
The authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing of human eyelid skin from healthy individuals across different ages and identified 11 canonical cell types, as well as six subpopulations of basal cells.
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Zou, Z., Long, X., Zhao, Q., Zheng, Y., Song, M., Ma, S., Jing, Y., Wang, S., He, Y., Esteban, C. R., Yu, N., Huang, J., Chan, P., Chen, T., Belmonte, J. C. I., Zhang, W., Qu, J., & Liu, G.-H. (2020). A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Human Skin Aging. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.11.002 Cite
Investigators summarize and highlight the role of these cells in liver cancer and propose strategies to therapeutically target them. They also discuss current immunotherapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma and outline recent advances in our understanding of how the therapeutic potential of these agents might be enhanced.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
The authors investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in intestinal fibrosis using not only a murine fibrosis model but also human myofibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells. Colon fibrosis was induced in TLR4-deficient mice and its wild-type counterparts with 3% dextran sulfate sodium.
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Jun, Y. K., Kwon, S. H., Yoon, H. T., Park, H., Soh, H., Lee, H. J., Im, J. P., Kim, J. S., Kim, J. W., & Koh, S.-J. (2020). Toll-like receptor 4 regulates intestinal fibrosis via cytokine expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19867. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76880-y Cite
Researchers cover the latest research on damage-associated regenerative ISCs and epigenetic factors that determine intestinal stem cell (ISC) fate, as well as provide opinions on future studies that need to be undertaken to understand the repercussions of the emergence of these cells, their contribution to relapses in inflammatory bowel disease, and their potential use in therapeutics for chronic intestinal diseases.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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The authors describe the known pro-/anti-inflammatory and fibrogenic properties of ECM proteins and damage-associated molecular patterns, with particular reference to the immunomodulatory properties of the ECM in the context of chronic liver disease.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
Scientists performed an in-depth qualitative and quantitative (immuno-)histological analysis focusing on key-players of the inflammatory and remodeling cascades. First-generation tissue-engineered matrix-based heart valves were prone to chronic inflammation, showing a high presence of macrophages and α-SMA+-cells, hinge-area thickening, and delayed endothelialization.
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Motta, S. E., Fioretta, E. S., Lintas, V., Dijkman, P. E., Hilbe, M., Frese, L., Cesarovic, N., Loerakker, S., Baaijens, F. P. T., Falk, V., Hoerstrup, S. P., & Emmert, M. Y. (2020). Geometry influences inflammatory host cell response and remodeling in tissue-engineered heart valves in-vivo. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19882. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76322-9 Cite
LPSlow-tolerized human macrophages mitigated the fibro-inflammatory phenotype of endometriotic cells in an interleukin-10-dependent manner.
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Jeljeli, M., Riccio, L. G. C., Chouzenoux, S., Moresi, F., Toullec, L., Doridot, L., Nicco, C., Bourdon, M., Marcellin, L., Santulli, P., Abrão, M. S., Chapron, C., & Batteux, F. (2020). Macrophage Immune Memory Controls Endometriosis in Mice and Humans. Cell Reports, 33(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108325 Cite
To analyze the effect of NF-kB signaling in myofibroblasts (MFs), researchers crossed L2-IL-1B mice to tamoxifen inducible Vim-Cre mice and floxed RelA mice to specifically eliminate NF-kB signaling in MF. The interaction of epithelial cells and stromal cells was further analyzed in mouse Barrett Esophagus organoids and patient-derived human organoids.
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Anand, A., Fang, H.-Y., Mohammad Shahi, D., Ingermann, J., Baumeister, T., Strangmann, J., Wang, T. C., & Quante, M. (n.d.). Elimination of Nf-kB signaling in Vimentin+ stromal cells attenuates tumorigenesis in a mouse model of Barrett Esophagus. Carcinogenesis. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa109 Cite
Scientists performed a targeted CRISPR-Cas9-based sgRNA screen to identify candidate genes that counteract the decreased repopulating capacity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during gene therapy.
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The authors provide a comprehensive perspective on the pivotal role of NLR-family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in aggravating oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and the possible underlying mechanisms.
[Cell Death & Disease]