Intestinal Regulatory T Cell Induction by β-Elemene Alleviates the Formation of Fat Tissue-Related Inflammation

Oral administration of β-elemene, contained in various foodstuffs, downregulated expressions of inflammatory cytokines and increased Foxp3+CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue of obese mice.
[iScience]
Zhou, Y., Takano, T., Wang, Y., Li, X., Wang, R., Wakatsuki, Y., Nakajima-Adachi, H., Tanokura, M., Miyakawa, T., & Hachimura, S. (2020). Intestinal Regulatory T Cell Induction by β-Elemene Alleviates the Formation of Fat Tissue-Related Inflammation. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101883 Cite
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A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Human Skin Aging

The authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing of human eyelid skin from healthy individuals across different ages and identified 11 canonical cell types, as well as six subpopulations of basal cells.
[Developmental Cell]
Zou, Z., Long, X., Zhao, Q., Zheng, Y., Song, M., Ma, S., Jing, Y., Wang, S., He, Y., Esteban, C. R., Yu, N., Huang, J., Chan, P., Chen, T., Belmonte, J. C. I., Zhang, W., Qu, J., & Liu, G.-H. (2020). A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Human Skin Aging. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.11.002 Cite
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Immunobiology and Immunotherapy of HCC: Spotlight on Innate and Innate-Like Immune Cells

Investigators summarize and highlight the role of these cells in liver cancer and propose strategies to therapeutically target them. They also discuss current immunotherapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma and outline recent advances in our understanding of how the therapeutic potential of these agents might be enhanced.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Ruf, B., Heinrich, B., & Greten, T. F. (2020). Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00572-w Cite
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Toll-Like Receptor 4 Regulates Intestinal Fibrosis via Cytokine Expression and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

The authors investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in intestinal fibrosis using not only a murine fibrosis model but also human myofibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells. Colon fibrosis was induced in TLR4-deficient mice and its wild-type counterparts with 3% dextran sulfate sodium.
[Scientific Reports]
Jun, Y. K., Kwon, S. H., Yoon, H. T., Park, H., Soh, H., Lee, H. J., Im, J. P., Kim, J. S., Kim, J. W., & Koh, S.-J. (2020). Toll-like receptor 4 regulates intestinal fibrosis via cytokine expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19867. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76880-y Cite
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Regenerative Intestinal Stem Cells Induced by Acute and Chronic Injury: The Saving Grace of the Epithelium?

Researchers cover the latest research on damage-associated regenerative ISCs and epigenetic factors that determine intestinal stem cell (ISC) fate, as well as provide opinions on future studies that need to be undertaken to understand the repercussions of the emergence of these cells, their contribution to relapses in inflammatory bowel disease, and their potential use in therapeutics for chronic intestinal diseases.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
Rees, W. D., Tandun, R., Yau, E., Zachos, N. C., & Steiner, T. S. (2020). Regenerative Intestinal Stem Cells Induced by Acute and Chronic Injury: The Saving Grace of the Epithelium? Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.583919 Cite
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Immunomodulatory Role of the Extracellular Matrix Within the Liver Disease Microenvironment

The authors describe the known pro-/anti-inflammatory and fibrogenic properties of ECM proteins and damage-associated molecular patterns, with particular reference to the immunomodulatory properties of the ECM in the context of chronic liver disease.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
McQuitty, C. E., Williams, R., Chokshi, S., & Urbani, L. (2020). Immunomodulatory Role of the Extracellular Matrix Within the Liver Disease Microenvironment. Frontiers in Immunology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.574276 Cite
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Geometry Influences Inflammatory Host Cell Response and Remodeling in Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves In Vivo

Scientists performed an in-depth qualitative and quantitative (immuno-)histological analysis focusing on key-players of the inflammatory and remodeling cascades. First-generation tissue-engineered matrix-based heart valves were prone to chronic inflammation, showing a high presence of macrophages and α-SMA+-cells, hinge-area thickening, and delayed endothelialization.
[Scientific Reports]
Motta, S. E., Fioretta, E. S., Lintas, V., Dijkman, P. E., Hilbe, M., Frese, L., Cesarovic, N., Loerakker, S., Baaijens, F. P. T., Falk, V., Hoerstrup, S. P., & Emmert, M. Y. (2020). Geometry influences inflammatory host cell response and remodeling in tissue-engineered heart valves in-vivo. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19882. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76322-9 Cite
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Macrophage Immune Memory Controls Endometriosis in Mice and Humans

LPSlow-tolerized human macrophages mitigated the fibro-inflammatory phenotype of endometriotic cells in an interleukin-10-dependent manner.
[Cell Reports]
Jeljeli, M., Riccio, L. G. C., Chouzenoux, S., Moresi, F., Toullec, L., Doridot, L., Nicco, C., Bourdon, M., Marcellin, L., Santulli, P., Abrão, M. S., Chapron, C., & Batteux, F. (2020). Macrophage Immune Memory Controls Endometriosis in Mice and Humans. Cell Reports, 33(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108325 Cite
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Elimination of Nf-kB Signaling in Vimentin+ Stromal Cells Attenuates Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett Esophagus

To analyze the effect of NF-kB signaling in myofibroblasts (MFs), researchers crossed L2-IL-1B mice to tamoxifen inducible Vim-Cre mice and floxed RelA mice to specifically eliminate NF-kB signaling in MF. The interaction of epithelial cells and stromal cells was further analyzed in mouse Barrett Esophagus organoids and patient-derived human organoids.
[Carcinogenesis]
Anand, A., Fang, H.-Y., Mohammad Shahi, D., Ingermann, J., Baumeister, T., Strangmann, J., Wang, T. C., & Quante, M. (n.d.). Elimination of Nf-kB signaling in Vimentin+ stromal cells attenuates tumorigenesis in a mouse model of Barrett Esophagus. Carcinogenesis. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa109 Cite
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Competitive sgRNA Screen Identifies p38 MAPK as a Druggable Target to Improve HSPC Engraftment

Scientists performed a targeted CRISPR-Cas9-based sgRNA screen to identify candidate genes that counteract the decreased repopulating capacity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during gene therapy.
[Cells]
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NLRP3 Inflammasome in Endothelial Dysfunction

The authors provide a comprehensive perspective on the pivotal role of NLR-family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in aggravating oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction and the possible underlying mechanisms.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Bai, B., Yang, Y., Wang, Q., Li, M., Tian, C., Liu, Y., Aung, L. H. H., Li, P., Yu, T., & Chu, X. (2020). NLRP3 inflammasome in endothelial dysfunction. Cell Death & Disease, 11(9), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02985-x Cite
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