Interleukin (IL)‐33 was highly expressed in the skin and pancreatic epithelial cells in chronic inflammation, leading to a markedly repressed Smad6 expression as well as dramatically upregulated p‐SMAD2/3 and p‐SMAD1/5 in the epithelial cells.
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Nuclear IL‐33/SMAD signaling axis promotes cancer development in chronic inflammation | The EMBO Journal. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.embopress.org/doi/abs/10.15252/embj.2020106151 Cite
Scientists present an efficient, lentiviral transduction protocol for delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 to macrophages derived from human iPSC with efficiencies close to 100%.
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In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Investigators discuss the role of platelets in liver fibrosis and accompanying hemostatic disorders. They present the results of animal and human studies on antiplatelet drugs in liver disorders and their potential therapeutic utility.
An in vitro model using human colon organoids was established by 60 weeks of inflammatory stimulation. The key gene for mucosal injury caused by long-term inflammation was identified by microarray analysis. An in vivo model was established by xenotransplantation of organoids into mouse colonic mucosa.
[Journal of Crohns & Colitis]
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Watanabe, S., Nishimura, R., Shirasaki, T., Katsukura, N., Hibiya, S., Kirimura, S., Negi, M., Okamoto, R., Matsumoto, Y., Nakamura, T., Watanabe, M., & Tsuchiya, K. (2021). Schlafen 11 is a novel target for mucosal regeneration in Ulcerative Colitis. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, jjab032. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab032 Cite
Scientists explain some of the reasons that implicate hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke among the Japanese population.
[Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine]
Investigators showed that CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis had increased expression of the pore-forming calcium channel component ORAI3.
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Ye, Z., Shen, Y., Jin, K., Qiu, J., Hu, B., Jadhav, R. R., Sheth, K., Weyand, C. M., & Goronzy, J. J. (2021). Arachidonic acid-regulated calcium signaling in T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis promotes synovial inflammation. Nature Communications, 12(1), 907. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21242-z Cite
Researchers summarize the current understanding of the biology of type 2 inflammation in asthma, examine its influence on type 2 inflammatory comorbidities, and discuss how type 2 inflammatory biomarkers can be harnessed to further personalise treatments in the age of biologic medicines.
[European Respiratory Journal]
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Scientists present an overview of the current knowledge of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, focusing on the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of CAC and the potential for IBD drugs to interfere with the process of carcinogenesis by reducing the inflammatory process or by modulating pathways directly involved in carcinogenesis.
[Digestive and Liver Disease]
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Emerging evidence indicates an important role for the tissue microenvironment in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Each tissue is made up of cells surrounded and supported by a unique ECM. These complex molecular networks define tissue architecture and provide environmental signals that programme site-specific cell behaviour.
[Nature Reviews Rheumatology]